Waste Spark Circuit  |

Hydrogen Hot Rod

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We can offer complete units or parts ,  Assembled engines require multi orders .

as time passes things spread and become easier we invite you all to use the info and build accordingly.

2 Ways

BOTH WITH FUEL INJECTION Zero ambient air

1 GTNT Explosive

( if we adjust the burn rate of this way it is same as gasoline  so no timing modifications  are required.) positive ground

2 HHO Implosive ,

both  way need zero air intake. or minimum and air must be positive

Waste Spark HHO Getting rid

4 Stroke Conversion to HHO Implosion 2 Stroke Explained. Conversion of the 4 stroke internal combustion engine to a new way of doing things.

 

Pure HHO  ignited in a vaccum turns back to water by an implosion from 1800 parts to 1 part ratio (1800:1). In doing so this sudden change at ignition becomes an implosion in a vacuum.

 

This video has 3 animations of... 1. the 4 stroke engine run on petroleum/gasoline. 2. the 4 stroke Internal Combustion Engine converted to 2 stroke Internal Implosion Engine to run on pure HHO, having 5 distinct cycles... i) Intake ii) Decompression (more Vacuum) iii)

 

Firing iv) Implosion (power cycle [most of stroke]) v) Exhaust 3. Both animations side by side of similar cycles, slowed and paused to catch up to the other.

 

 GTNT is Explosive for of HHO and must be cut with EGR.

Waste Spark HHO Getting rid
Waste Spark HHO Getting rid
Waste Spark HHO Getting rid

Basic Waste Spark

Circuit Rail

Order  Parts

Hall Sensor Circuit Waste Spark Timing conversion
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  
CDI Ignition Circuit Waste Spark Timing Spark Conversion
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  
Timing Calibrate
Circuit
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  
110v/220v to 12v 9XD Circuit  Waste Spark 
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  
Ignition Coil  Waste Spark Timing conversion
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  
Complete Rail Circuit
Timing conversion
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  

Advanced Optional Features  Waste Spark Circuit 

 

Engine Options

Several design of Genset are available and also being further expanded. 

In order to AVOID future misunderstandings, I decided to write this overview/explanation

but first, I wish to make some VERY IMPORTANT statements and I ask ALL readers:

Please make sure you UNDERSTAND them!

The VOLUME and QUALITY of   GTNT will depend almost ENTIRELY on what kind of on demand gas system is used. 

INTENTION (with the numerous building blocks of the ECU) is to provide anyone who is willing to ‘get their hands dirty’ with the necessary CONTROL ELECTRONICS to achieve their goal.

 IF we are to use the old, rather crude and VERY inefficient (around 26%) Internal Combustion Engine at all, we need to provide it with ignition sparks at the correct times, supply fuel (in this case, GTNT) at the correct times and in correct volumes.

Further, the fuel pressure needs to be held steady (pressure regulation) and the power required to create the GTNT also needs to be supplied AND controlled (limited).

The need for all this control is INDEPENDENT of the method used for generating the required volume of GTNT  In other words, REGARDLESS of which method of GTNT generation is employed, the supply & controls described above are ESSENTIAL. However, you have probably noticed that I offer additional circuits as well, not absolutely necessary but desirable for a smooth working control system and power back up (for example: automatic battery charger circuit).

There is also a convenient control panel where all adjustment are made and pressure, current and voltage levels are SET and DISPLAYED.

Note that I choose the name Engine Control Unit (ECU) deliberately as its functions are similar to that of the existing systems used by car manufacturers. However, all unnecessary functions of the ‘standard’ ECU have been left out! On the other hand, its functions are expanded to include the power supply AND control to create the FUEL itself, GTNT All circuit sections are mainly ANALOG, using common, cheap and readily available components. (NO ‘microprocessors’, NO complex software programming!)

News

1. Control panel circuit diagram, pcb layout and control box description

2. Infra red transmitter & receiver circuits used by the two stage Voltrolysis 

water refilling system

3. Hall switch circuit with a buffer stage which eliminates RF interference pick-up! 

Features Include 
- Auto Refill
- Auto Start 
- Fuel Injector
- TDC Timing Adjust 
- Auto Rpm Adjust
- Auto Gas Pressure Start 
- Battery Charger 
- Saftey Pressure Cut off 
- Ir INfra Red Remote Start
- 5kw to 10 Kw of Power in 110v or 220 v 50hz.60hz 
- Voltrolysis Unit and Control 
- No Salts or Electrolytes 
- Voltage Controllers 
- Innovative Low Amp Production of Fuel Gas 
- MIl Spec Connectors Water Proof 
- Robust Portable Design 
- Waste Spark Mitigation 
- CDI Ignition 
- Low Maintenance
- Easy and Automatic Operation
- Optional Timer 
- Opation PCL Panel with 5 Meter Extension Lead

Special thanks to Les Banki

and the worlds people in the Hydrogen on Demand Industry. 

 

All of whom that have helped share to us through him and through other means .

 

Which allows this page to exist for making sharing and supporting the basic understanding shown in these methods to run engine on water fuels.

Daniel Donatelli

Special Note Some names reference and pictures have been modified to streamline and focus the years of knowledge presented in this page specifically.

 

Designs are not just Analog they are Pulse Width Proportional hybrid
Analog/Digital.

 

If one can translate a control system to an entirely linear system
then one can model it entirely as control sequences and pulse-proportional
modules.

 

(PID proportional control is actually pulse-proportional where the circuit
attempts to learn one important proportionality hidden variable of the system by
operational trial and error. Not required here.)

If one can translate control entirely to linear systems then one can ignore the
non-linear control laws which most often result in the more complex differential
equations intermediates.

 Efficiency calculations can then be looked at as linear
equations.

 

Somewhat along the same lines with the system in question.  What I hear you saying is;
"Get the subsystem function from whatever the source you can, over unity comes with it.

 

Then carefully construct a demand control structure so that as the next subsystem raises
vs lowers it's energy demand, the current subsystem raises or lower it's demand in response."

 

Which make the chain efficiency more or less constant by PWP means.

 

Try to get the HydrOdxy to stay at a constant pressure so the proportioning injector can accurately
control how much hydrogen is injected into the engine manifold based in energy demand.

Avoid those subsystems that attempt to run at constant fixed power level then behave
very inefficiently at demand limits.

---

Ok..Thanks. You've made something very valuable available to us here.

Thank you very much for your kind words and even more thanks for your SUPERB analysis!

While highly "technical", I sincerely hope that your analysis does not fly above too many heads here!

 THE CIRCUIT LIST

1kw to 10 kw Genset

1. Hall switch – tiny pcb, mounted on the engine. With a small permanent magnet attached to the exhaust valve’s ‘rocker arm’, it supplies pulses to the Ignition/Injection control module. These pulses indicate the piston’s position in the engine’s work cycle.

2. Capacitor Discharge Ignition (CDI) module – when connected to an ignition coil, it creates the required high voltage (20,000V+) to fire the spark plug.

3. Ignition & Injection control module – supplies the control pulses to the CDI module (WHEN to deliver the sparks) and the drive pulses to the injection solenoid.

4. Automatic RPM control PCB 1 and PCB 2 – automatically brings engine speed from start-up to the correct RPM where the generator supplies approx. 240V with a frequency of 50Hz.

5.  Feed-back control loop – to maintain a STEADY frequency (50Hz) and voltage (240V) output with varying loads.

6. EGR Exhaust Gas Recycle  - No Circuit manual setting  to maintain a slower burn speed for the hydrogen mixture and reduce the amount of fuel needed. 

7. Auto start – simple circuit which activates the remote control for 3 seconds to start the generator when the set gas pressure is reached.

8. Pressure regulator module – decides the desired pressure ‘scale’ (PSI, kPA or whatever), Sets and displays the pressure limit and continuously monitors and displays (on the control panel) the actual pressure.

9. Battery charger – automatic charger, used to maintain FULL charge AT ALL TIMES on a stand-by battery which will be necessary once mains power is no longer connected. (for re-start after maintenance stops) 8Power supply (regulator) module – supplies +12V-1, +12V-2, -12V, +5V and -5V to the various modules and sensors.

10. Water level sensor & pump driver 1 – used to automatically detect the minimum water level in the electrolyzer unit and refill to the set maximum level when necessary.used to detect the minimum (Danger!) water level in the flash-back arrestor and SHUTS DOWN the electrolyzer power supply! Can also be used (with a second pump) for automatic re-fill  

11.  Saftey Circuit

 

12. Relay board – a universal AC/DC 30A relay with a 12V DC coil, transistor driver and indicator LED. Can be configured for either start-up/run or for general HIGH power switching and is used mainly with the timer & timer interphase circuit.

13. Timer & timer interphase module – while NOT essential, it is VERY ‘handy’, particularly for REPEATED experiments. It eliminates time measuring errors and a lot of ‘guess work’. Also eliminates large mechanical power switches! It can also be used to stop the engine/generator after a pre-set time (up to 24 hours!) ''' Test oscillator''' – it is powered up ONLY during set-up (when the engine is not turning there are NO pulses from the Hall switch) it provides the pulses needed for testing.

However, since this oscillator is NOT used during normal operation, if desired, it could be used to flash the LED which indicates power SHUT DOWN to the electrolyzer in the event the flash-back arrestor’s water level drops too LOW.

14. Control panel – See circuit description for the functions which can be SET and DISPLAYED.

Closing notes:

Once again, as indicated in this overview, not all circuits are being used at the same time

Summary 

Well, just about every engine BRAND and MODEL is different. Some may be able to be modified like that above, some won’t. And so, here is the BIG question:

Fit a small magnet to the exhaust valve’s rocker arm, attach the tiny Hall switch pcb to the engine block and then turn a potentiometer on the control panel to set your desired ignition point, continuously variable +/- 45° from TDC, while the engine is running!

 CDI system draws only 0.5A. MAXIMUM power draw is 6W!! 

Voltolysis Cell

9XD   –Power Control circuit  dc power to 9xb Takes 110v or 220 v and turns it into dc 12v

9XB   –Voltrolysis Circuit Driver Make a Special Signal for the Voltrolysis Cell

Switch –Controls Ac into and Variac and than DC Voltrolysis into cell ( Gates the Pwm)

                with electron extraction

 

Variac -Variac controls power to switch  and voltage levels

Choke - Bifilar Choke Restrict amps and allows voltage to take over doing work. 

Voltrolysis Cell - Voltrolysis Cell 9 tube 16 inch to 18 inch 7 LPM of Gas 

Inline Flash Arrestor Wittgas Filter/flash arrestor / check valve 

1. The Hall Switch

 

Ignition system for small engines running

on GTNT ONLY  It should be obvious that with GTNT as the ONLY fuel, the use of 2 stroke engines are ruled out since they require oil to be mixed with their fuel for lubrication.

Therefore, only 4 stroke engines will be considered in this brief.

First, some engine data.

The crank shaft on a 4 stroke engine turns twice (720º) for every ‘work’ cycle. Since most (if not all) small engine designs use a magnet on the fly wheel (which is mounted on the crankshaft) to generate the ignition sparks, 2 sparks are delivered for every work cycle.

 

The second spark (which is delivered during the exhaust stroke) is NOT needed and so it is called “waste spark”. With hydrocarbon fuels it is harmless.

However, with GTNT ONLY, this “waste spark” MUST be eliminated.With hydrocarbon fuels, ignition usually takes place around 8º before TDC to allow some atomization of the fuel before the actual ‘explosion’, which occurs approximately 10º after TDC.

If GTNT is ignited at ANY point before the piston has reached TDC, the explosion takes place at that INSTANT. (There is NO delay or atomization here since it ‘burns’ about 1000 times faster than hydrocarbon fuels and it could be said that it is not ‘burning’ but exploding!)

 

The force of the explosion instantly tries to push the piston DOWN when it is still trying to come to the top to complete its compression stroke!  That is most undesirable!

When the ignition is delayed (retarded) to the point where the explosion usually occurs with hydrocarbon fuels (around 10º after TDC) then the piston’s downward movement is reinforced and useful work is gained.

Now, consider what would happen if the waste spark was NOT eliminated. As stated above, the crankshaft revolves twice for every ‘work’ cycle.

 

(The first revolution covers the intake and compression stroke and the second one the power and exhaust stroke.) Thus, the second spark (‘waste spark’) occurs just before (the same degree of advance as the wanted spark, about 8º) before TDC at the end of the exhaust stroke.

But when the ignition pulse is delayed to be after TDC, the waste spark will occur at the beginning of a new ‘cycle’, where the intake valve has just started to open.

So now, with a slightly open valve there is an open path to the fuel line (Hydroxy), and there comes a spark! Guess what happens… Guaranteed back fire!

And I can assure you that even the most minute opening will allow the ‘flame front’ to propagate back to the supply line. How do I know? Experience. Lots of it.

Further,   “flash-back arrestor”, since that is their true role.

Stopping flash backs traveling back to your Voltrolysis Unit and DESTROY it, by all means, ignore the advice. Not only will you DESTROY your Voltrolysis but very likely injure or even KILL yourself and/or others!

An example of engine calculations:

I bought a new, 118cc, one cylinder, 4 stroke petrol engine for GTNT experiments. Its rated max. output is 4 horsepower (2960W) at 3600RPM. For the ease of calculations, lets round up the capacity to 120cc (0.12L) This is the maximum volume of air/fuel mixture it can suck in during its intake cycle.

As stated before, the engine’s ‘work’ cycle number is half the crankshaft revolution.

Thus, at 3600RPM, the number of fuel intakes is 1800/minute. 1800 x 0.12L = 216L/minute

However, as only 1% of QUALITY GTNT(mixed with 99% of air) is needed to obtain the same power as petrol, this 120cc engine should require only 2.16L/minute of GTNT to run at 3600RPM!! (Naturally, it would require less at lower speeds. It remains to be seen if it will require more under full load than this calculated volume.)

Now a few notes about the necessary ignition delay and how to achieve it.

In one article it was suggested that one could use a 555 ICto delay the ignition pulse. Yes, that could be done but it would only be correct at ONE speed.

 

The reason is obvious:

Ignition advance/delay is related to piston position, NOT time. It is expressed in ‘degrees’ but for hydrocarbon fuels it is varied slightly with engine speed. (due to its relatively slow burning) With GTNT ignition will take place at the same ‘degree’, (same position of the piston) regardless of engine speed.

 

At this stage, a couple of things are clear already:

One: on my test engine (and I dare say on most, it not all, small engines) it is not possible (meaning: NOT practical) to eliminate the ‘waste sparks’.

Two, there is NO provision for ignition timing adjustments, neither mechanical, nor electronic.

In other words, the existing ignition systems used on small engines are USELESS for GTNT. We need a NEW electronic ignition system, complete with ADJUSTABLE delay.

So how can that be done?

Again, two revolutions of the crankshaft is 720º (two circles but one ‘work cycle’).

The camshaft, (controlling the valves) however, turns only ONCE, which is 360º.

In electronic terms, that is 100%.

We want to delay the ignition timing from where it is now, say, from 8º before TDC to 10º after TDC. That is a delay of 18º.

The equation is: 360 : 100 = 18 : X Re-arranging it: 360X = 1800, X = 5

In other words, 18º is 5% of 360º.

We need to delay our original ignition pulse by 5%, irrespective of frequency. (the ‘frequency’ here is the engine’s revolution)

The above example serves to illustrate the difference between the ‘old’ and the ‘new’ settings, assuming that the degree settings relate to the camshaft revolution, 360º.

However, as I understand it, the ignition advance/retard degrees are usually expressed in terms of crankshaft degrees (720° - two revolutions of the crankshaft)

In that case, the above percentage of 5% is halved. Then, 18º is 2.5% of 720º

Since we need a NEW ignition system, this ‘delay’ will no longer relate to the ‘old’ setting. A new signal is taken from a sensor (Hall switch) mounted on the engine, detecting the intake (or exhaust) valve’s position.

 

Using the signal from this sensor, the ignition spark could be made to occur anywhere but we want it approx. 10º (or more) after TDC (adjustable within a few degrees)

Of course, our reference is still TDC.

When we express all that in electronic signal terms, the intake stroke (piston travels from TDC to BDC) is ¼ of the engine’s work cycle, which is 25% of our wave form. (90º of the work cycle and 180º of crankshaft rotation)

If we transform the delays from degrees to percentage, we get the following figures:

10º ATDC is a delay of ~1.39%

25º “ ~3.47%

So, if we want the adjustment range of 10º - 25º, the percentage difference is 2.08%.

[We can also calculate the elapsed time this translates to, for any given speed. For example: at 3600RPM, the ‘frequency’ is 30Hz. One period is 1/30 = 0.0333sec. Thus, a 1.39% delay means that the piston has traveled (from TDC) for 463.3µs to reach the position of 10º ATDC (relating to crankshaft revolution)]

One simple way to implement these delays is to use a PWM (Pulse Width Modulator) circuit, which is my preferred choice. (How this is done will be described in detail in a technical “circuit description”.)

It needs to be pointed out that the ignition system for GTNT ONLY (not just a booster) will be very different from ignition systems for hydrocarbon fuels.

It will be significantly simpler.

There will be

  • NO “speed mapping”,

  • NO “load mapping”,

  • NO retard/advance change with engine RPM,

  • NO rich/lean mixture setting,

  • NO cold start setting,

  • NO “knock sensor”,

  • NO fuel/air temperature sensor,

  • NO Oxygen sensor, etc., etc., (“modern” engines are full of all that rubbish!)

  • NO need for high energy sparks, multiple sparks, etc.

Further, there will be NO such thing as UNBURNED fuel remaining in the cylinders!!

In short; when we get to the larger engines (cars), the first thing we have to do is to rip out the “computer” and install our own system, incorporating electronic injection as well

 

. (Perhaps another option could be to completely re-program the ‘computer’, provided that one could obtain the original programming software from the manufacturer, which, I would say, is HIGHLY unlikely!)

I am in favor of electronic injection (but ONLY for GTNT ) for two reasons:

1. I reason that if we allow GTNT  to flow continuously, some of it may disappear during the other ¾ of the engine’s work cycle. (the intake stroke is only ¼ cycle)

2. If GTNT is ALWAYS present in the intake manifold, we may risk a damaging back fire.

I am aiming at a mainly analog design, using parts available everywhere and are dirt cheap!

Should a fault occur, it will be quick, easy and cheap to repair.

Hall STIM Test  Circuit
Small Gensets
Very Useful Circuit  

1.1 The Hall

STIM Test Oscillator

 

Important notes about the Ignition & Injection control circuit and Test Oscillator

While this control circuit is relatively simple, testing and adjustments DO require some test equipment AND a certain degree of knowledge in electronics.

 

Unless you have both, (or know someone who does and is willing to help you) you should NOT attempt to duplicate this circuit.

If you decide to go ahead, you should be aware of the following:

Unlike the CDI module (which creates the ignition sparks), this Ignition/Injection control circuit cannot be tested/adjusted without a dual trace oscilloscope !

Even if you buy a ready made board, it may still need to be re-adjusted (perhaps only slightly) to suit your particular engine type!

The reason is that the position of the pulses delivered by the Hall switch depends on how and where the activating magnet is attached to the engine.

This design is based on Hall switch US2881UA, made by Melexis.

It has very high sensitivity and is Bipolar.

 

That means both polarity (N & S) of the magnet can be used for switching but that too will affect the pulse position slightly. (However, other types of Hall switches can also be used, with or without modifications.)

For the above reasons, the EXACT pulse position in the engine’s working cycle can only be determined by electronic measurements when everything is in place and the engine is turning! (by hand or by starter motor)

If all this appears to be somewhat complicated, well, it is!

But there is more.

 

The pulse input circuit has a relatively high input impedance (determined by R10, 100k). If the Hall sensor end of a long wire is left open (not terminated) it is prone to pick up interference which upsets operation.

 

(For example, should it pick up mains hum (50Hz), it may deliver sparks at mains frequency rate, without the engine turning!)

 

Once the Hall sensor is connected, everything is fine since it has a LOW impedance output. Still, I suggest you keep the connecting cable (3 wires) to the Hall sensor as short as practical. Shielded cable is recommended.

For set-up & testing purposes, the pulses normally coming from the Hall switch must be substituted with some other signal source.

To eliminate the need for a dedicated pulse generator, I am offering a very simple design of a 4046 (PLL) based square wave oscillator.

 

(VCO) (Note: It does not have to be low duty cycle pulse since the input of the control circuit ONLY responds to the RISING EDGE of the waveform.)

I choose to put this simple circuit on a separate (small) circuit board and it is intended to be PERMANENTLY attached to the system but only connected (powered up) during set-up and testing.

 

There is not much to be said about this very basic circuit but perhaps I should mention that its frequency range is restricted to approx. 1Hz - 40Hz.

The restricted range also eliminates the possibility of setting incorrect frequencies.

 

This brief explanation may assist those who are not familiar with Capacitor Discharge Ignition.

A capacitor (usually about 0.5 – 2uF) is charged to about 300 – 350V. The formula for the stored energy in each charge is: E=1/2·C·V²

In words: the energy (E, in Joules) = capacitance (C, in Farad) multiplied by the voltage (V) across the capacitor, squared, multiplied by 0.5 (or divided by two, same thing)

For example: in the CDI design I am presenting here, the capacitor is 1uF. It is charged to 330V before it is allowed to discharge.

 

The stored energy (E) in each discharge is: 1/2·1·330² = 0.05445 joules or 54.45 mjoules. [Incidentally, the required minimum spark energy for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) is said to be about 25 mjoules. (millijoule = 1/1000 joule)] As you can see, a 1uF capacitor delivers more than twice that minimum.

Of coarse, lowering the voltage decreases the energy. (AND also the average charging power required!) In case the capacitor is charged to only 300V (which will still deliver at least 20,000V to the spark plug), the energy in each charge is 45mjoules.

 

(Still almost twice the claimed minimum.)

Again, note that the voltage (V) in the formula is squared. This means that even a relatively small change in the voltage (increase or decrease) results in a significant increase or decrease of stored energy. However, keep in mind that HydrOxy requires considerably LESS spark energy.

(Even a very low energy electrostatic discharge spark is sufficient to ignite HydrOxy!)

Capacitor Discharge Ignition differs significantly from the well known (and old!) ‘Kettering’ system. Instead of feeding the primary winding of the ignition coil with LOW voltage (12 – 14V) and HIGH current (5 -10A), HIGH voltage (300 – 350V) and LOW current is dumped into the primary winding from a charged capacitor. Thus, the POWER requirement of the CDI system is only a fraction of the Kettering system!

 

The design I am presenting here uses about 6W while the Kettering type ignition use 50 – 120W, depending on the design. The above mentioned 6W power consumption is for a system requiring a maximum of 50 discharges per second which corresponds to 6000RPM for a ONE cylinder engine.

Naturally, for multi cylinder engines the power consumption will increase somewhat as the number of charge/discharge cycles increase.

The high voltage (300 – 350V) needed for a CDI system is obtained by using a DC – DC converter. There are several types of DC – DC converters but all of them use an inductor or transformer of some sort. Such a transformer (or inductor) usually has to be custom designed. All designers face this problem. Most (if not all) manufacturers are not willing to design/make just a few pieces. Unless one is prepared to order large quantities, they are NOT interested. Thus, the cost of any new design is very much an issue!

There is a very good reason for telling you all this. Everyone who intends to duplicate this circuit needs the following information:

While investigating several options, I discovered that several types of commercially made DC – DC converters are available to power CFL’s (Compact Fluorescent Light). One of these little beauties are sold here by Oatley Electronics for a grand sum of \$4.00!! www.oatleyelectronics.com (one could hardly get a transformer for that price!)

But there is a catch. Its output is over 500V! (unloaded) That is WAY too high for a CDI unit! Loading alone does NOT bring the voltage down to the desired value AND its output changes with load changes! So, its output needs to be REGULATED.

 

There are basically two ways to do this. One is to regulate the bias to the two driver transistors, the other is to regulate the input voltage to the unit. I have tried both. When regulating the bias, both transistors need to be heath sinked since they are no longer turned on fully and so they run hot. I found regulating the input voltage to be a lot better option.

Since this design is based on this particular CFL inverter (or rather, its transformer), everyone who intends to duplicate this design will face the same practical ‘problem’. My circuit and pcb layout for this CDI system is built around this transformer.

 

I have actually bought a large number of these inverters. (there is no point designing pcb’s for just a few units). I strip these units, discard the original (round) circuit board and transfer the components to my pcb.

 

I found this to be by FAR the easiest and cheapest way to obtain the desired DC – DC converter! In any case, even if I choose a custom designed transformer, duplicators would still have no choice but obtaining THAT particular transformer.

In case this is not acceptable to some of you, you are on your own and you have to “roll your own” design!

Needless to say, I will sell completed units and perhaps kits, too.

Regulating the output was relatively easy. However, during extensive testing I discovered that in case of certain possible fault conditions (more on this later) the DC – DC converter draws excessive currents which over heaths the inverter transformer and destroys the driver transistors.

Therefore, I have added a fairly complex protection circuit which I developed/designed. It gives full protection!

Detailed CDI circuit description

Let’s start with the CFL inverter described above. While the manufacturer/supplier does not offer any kind of description (they hardly ever do!), it is easy enough to figure out how it works. (it is not important) All I want to say is that it is a clever, simple design which seems to be very efficient and works well. It runs at about 100kHz.

Looking at my   the components used from this inverter are: TF1, L1, Q7, Q8, C9, R26 and R27.

The output is full wave rectified by HV ultra-fast diodes (UF4007) D3, D4, D5 and D6. C10 (10n, 630V) is filtering the HV output.

 

This 330V (or 300V) output is connected to one side of capacitor C12 (1uF, 400V). The other side of C12 is connected to the “hot” side of the ignition coil primary. The other side of the coil is grounded. (as usual) In other words, the other side of capacitor C12 is grounded through the ignition coil.

The capacitor’s stored energy is discharged into the coil as follows: SCR1 (TYN816) is connected between the high voltage output and ground. Its Gate is triggered by transistor Q9 (BC547), wired as an emitter follower.

 

When ignition pulses (from the ignition module) are fed to its base (through R28, 1k), it turns on and its emitter supplies the trigger current from the 12V supply rail, through collector resistor R29 (390 ohms). When Q9 is turned on, some current also flows through R30 (470 ohms) in addition to the SCR’ gate trigger current. The low value of R30 and C11 (0.1uF) shunt spurious transients which could cause false triggering.

When SCR1 is triggered, it becomes (for all practical purposes) a short circuit. Through this ‘short circuit’ the capacitors energy is discharged to ground.

The discharge current also flows through the ignition coil’s primary which is transformed (1:100) and creates a secondary voltage well in excess of 20.000V! (depending on the type of coil used).

Regulating the inverter’s output voltage

As I have stated above, I choose to regulate the inverter’s input voltage.

It is a standard ‘series pass’, OP amp based regulator. (IC1B, LM324) It drives Q5 (BC547) and Q6 (TIP31B) in a Darlington configuration.

 

The HV (300 – 330V) output is attenuated by R23 (680k) and R24 (15k) and connected to pin 6, IC1B’s inverting (-) input. It is also connected to the emitter of Q6, which is the output of the regulator. The non-inverting input is connected to the slider of P1 (10k), which, with R25 (3k3) forms a voltage divider to restrict the adjustment range of P1.

 

This, in turn, limits the high voltage at the output of the inverter. Since OP amp IC1B is a “virtual earth” amplifier, its inverting (-) and non- inverting (+) inputs are practically at the same voltage. Therefore, the voltage appearing at pin 6 (regulator’s output) will be the same as the voltage on pin 5, the slider of P1.

 

The voltage divider R21 (990k) and R22 (10k)/C6 (10n) provide a convenient low voltage, low impedance test point TP2 for adjustment/test purposes of the HV output.

CDI Protection circuits

 Please look at the circuit diagram. You will see that C12 (the 1uF capacitor which supplies the spark energy) is connected between the HV output and, through the ignition coil’s primary winding, to ground.

Now, consider what happens if C12 goes short circuit. (In other words, there is a short placed on the DC – DC converter’s output!)

 

The poor thing will try to supply power into a short circuit! (with plenty of current but almost NO voltage!) As a result, current draw from the power supply will increase dramatically. This causes the driver transistors AND the transformer to over heath, until something gives!

Consider now an open circuited C12. There is NO stored energy to discharge. Then there is NO charge time to consider. Remember that SCR1 (TYN816) is also directly across the HV output.

Normally, when SCR1 fires to discharge the energy in C12, the current flowing through SCR1 is eventually reduced below its ‘holding current’ so it ‘drops out’.

 

(stops conducting) When there is NO capacitor, (same as an open circuit capacitor) there is NO periodic discharge, the DC – DC converter is continuously supplying current so SCR1 will NOT drop out. This means an INDEFINITE ‘short circuit’ (in form of a continuously conducting SCR) across the HV output.

Further, the EXACT same condition will also occur if the wire to the ignition coil’s primary is broken or disconnected. (or if the coil goes open circuit)

IC1A is used to detect the presence/absence of the HV. R1 (12k) and R2 (680k) form a voltage divider between the HV output and ground.

 

The voltage developed across R1 is a fraction of the HV and it is fed to the non-inverting (+) input pin 3 of IC1A, used here as a comparator.

 

A fixed voltage (approx. 2.9V) is applied to the inverting (-) input (pin 2) from the voltage divider R4 (68k) and R5 (22k) which is filtered by C2 (10uF). Under normal operating conditions the output of this comparator is HIGH.

Should the voltage on the non-inverting input (pin 3), which represents the HV output, decrease significantly (below the voltage on pin 2, the inverting input) or disappear completely due to a fault condition, the output of the comparator IC1A (pin 1) will go LOW.

 

This output is connected to the Gates of DMOS transistors Q2 and Q4 (2N7000), through R6 and R15, respectively (both 100 ohms). (Note: for this application bipolar transistors are un-satisfactory. Their off-state collector-emitter leakage is too high.)

IC1C and IC1D are wired as square wave oscillators. Since the normally conducting Q2 and Q4 are connected between the inverting (-) inputs and ground, both oscillators are DISABLED. (C3 – 3.3uF and C4 – 1uF are the timing capacitors) In the (sampling) oscillator IC1C, the charge/discharge times are separated.

 

This gives (with the component values shown) approx. 2 seconds HIGH and about 25 seconds LOW signal at IC1C’s output (pin 8).

 

Through D2 (4148) and R13 (10k) this signal is fed to the base of Q3 (BC547) which is used as an inverter. Q1 (2N7000) is connected between ground and the non-inverting (+) input (pin 5) of voltage regulator IC1B. Its Gate is connected to the collector of Q3

 

. When Q3 is conducting, Q1 is NOT. (NO Gate voltage – it is shorted by Q3) When Q3 is NOT conducting, Q1 gets its Gate drive from Q3’s collector through R14 (10k). Q1 is now conducting, bringing the voltage on the non-inverting input (pin 5) of the regulator (IC1B) to 0V. As a result, the regulator’s output is also zero.

NO INPUT VOLTAGE to the inverter means NO current draw. In other words, this is NOT a current limiter. The inverter is completely OFF, drawing NO current.

As long as the fault condition exists, oscillator IC1C continues its 2/25 seconds ON/OFF routine. Its output is inverted by Q3 which then turns Q1 OFF/ON. So, when Q1 is OFF, the regulator (and the inverter) is working normally. When Q1 is ON (conducting), the regulator (and thus the inverter) is cut off. In this condition, there is NO current draw.

In layman’s terms, this is what happens: Due to a fault condition, (capacitor C12 open or short circuit, ignition coil primary open circuit, wire to the coil broken or disconnected…) oscillator IC1C is ENABLED and is producing a 2 seconds ON and 25 seconds OFF signal. This signal ENABLES/DISABLES the regulator supplying the inverter.

 

The 2 seconds ENABLE signal is for SAMPLING. Is the fault still there? Yes. OK, cut power OFF for the next 25 seconds. Then, SAMPLE again (for 2 seconds) to check if the fault has been cleared or not. If not, this oscillator will continue its 2/25 second routine INDEFINITELY.

Since power is applied for only 2 seconds (SAMPLING) and there is NO power for 25 seconds, no harm is done! If the fault has been cleared, the oscillator is disabled and the regulator/inverter once again works normally.

Since indicator LED1 for the sampling oscillator is only turned ON for 2 seconds (and OFF for 25 seconds) there is a need for continuous indication of a fault condition.

That is the role of oscillator IC1D. Under normal working conditions it is disabled by Q4 (2N7000) which is shorting its timing capacitor C4 (1uF). It is wired as a square wave oscillator which, under fault conditions, flashes LED2 ON/OFF about 3 times per second (~3Hz).

Under normal operating conditions, the inverter’s regulated supply voltage output is around 6.4V. Current draw is about 0.5A.

 

With a short circuit placed on the output, the current rises to around 1 - 1.2A. Should the regulator transistor Q6 go open circuit, the inverter simply stops operating.

 

However, should it decide to go short circuit, (unlikely, due to the moderate current draw of only 0.5A) the full rail voltage of 12V would be applied to the inverter and its output would rise to over 500V! This, in itself, should not be a problem, except for two things:

 

1. Capacitor C12 (rated at 400V) might go short circuit (which would activate the protection circuit described above). 2. The ignition coil would produce excessive secondary voltage which could cause internal insulation break down.

Testing and adjustment

A number of TP’s (test points) are provided for testing and adjustment(s) purposes.

There is only ONE adjustment to be made on this pcb, to set the inverter’s output voltage to the desired value (usually somewhere between 300 – 330V depending on the ignition coil used).

Connect a voltmeter (set to 600V or 1000V range, depending on the meter) between TP3 (ground) and TP1 (HV) and disable discharge triggering TP4 by shorting it to TP3. Now adjust P1 to the desired voltage (300 – 330V) You could also use TP2 (and TP3) to adjust to 3 – 3.3V (100:1 attenuator,

 

provided mainly for oscilloscope connection to eliminate the risk of damaging its input)

The regulator’s output voltage (supplying the inverter) can be measured at TP5. For a 330V output it should be around 6.4V.

The operating temperature of the inverter transformer and its driver transistors are a very comfortable 47°C and 45°C, respectively, measured in ambient temperature of 30°C!

 

Important notice:

The control electronics described below is NOT suitable for engines with manual (pull cord) starters, UNLESS the pull cord is EXTENDED to provide MORE revolutions!

Reason: Recent physical tests of several manual start generators reveal that their pull cord starters only produce two (2) or 3 revolutions of their crankshaft.

That is only ONE (or 1.5) engine work cycle. In order to establish & stabilize the necessary waveform for proper operation, AT LEAST ONE (or more) cycle is required. During this process NO injection or ignition pulse(s) are allowed.

In other words: At least ONE engine cycle (2 crankshaft revolutions) is needed just to establish the correct waveform, WITHOUT injection or ignition pulses! Then, additional revolution(s) are necessary for starting.

Electric starters can deliver as many revolutions as needed and thus solve the ‘problem’. Needless to say, this involves a battery which will be needed anyway as a start-up supply for the electronics and generation of HHo 

Background

 , “Ignition system for small engines section ”  briefly outlines why a new ignition system is needed with HHO  as the ONLY fuel and what are the technical requirements for such an ignition system.

To start with, here are a couple of quotes from an EXCELLENT web site which briefly explains (with moving animation!) ignition technology:

“It is interesting to note that one complete engine cycle takes two revolutions but that individual valves and spark plugs only operate once in this time. Hence their timing needs to be taken from a half engine speed signal, which is the camshafts speed.”

“If the timing disk is attached to the crankshaft, there is a need in some engine configurations to have a sensor on the camshaft so that the igniter knows which ½ of the four-stroke cycle the engine is in.”

(http://www.gill.co.uk/products/digital_ignition/Introduction/6_4stroke.asp)

Gill ignition modules are designed to control naturally aspirated, turbo-charged and lean-burn engines operating on LPG, natural gas and biogas. Both the GS and GT versions are designed with the latest inductive ignition technology to provide a powerful spark with long duration, enabling complete combustion of low calorific value fuels as well as lean air/fuel mixtures.

They have been specifically designed for the stationary gas engine market, however the modules are also currently used in a wide variety of portable and industrial vehicle applications.

Most (if not all) existing small engines use a magnet mounted on the fly wheel which gives two pulses for every engine cycle. (thus generating “waste” sparks)

Electronically dividing by two would NOT solve the problem since another signal would be needed to determine which one of the two pulses we want and which one we don’t.

Only ONE sensor is needed IF it gives only ONE pulse for every ENGINE cycle. It does not matter WHERE in the engine’s cycle this pulse originates because it can be electronically ‘moved’

anywhere in the engine’s 360º (100%) cycle.

 

The obvious choice of a sensor is a ‘Hall effect’ switch.

Since modern engine blocks are non-ferrous (aluminium) alloys, the Hall switch can be placed on the outside of the engine block. For example, it can detect the position of a magnet which is fitted to the valve’s ‘rocker’ arm.

As the ‘rocker’ arm/magnet moves in and out of certain positions, the Hall switch turns on/off.

This sensor must detect the position of the cam shaft (which makes one revolution per engine cycle), NOT the crank shaft (which rotates twice for every work cycle). Looking at most small engine designs, it seems that accessing the cam shaft is easiest at the exhaust/intake valves under the valve cover.

Thus, the mechanical modification consist of fitting a small magnet to the rocker arm of the exhaust (or intake) valve but because the magnetic field is blocked by ferrous metal, if the valve cover is made of steel, it must be either replaced with a non-magnetic one (like aluminium), or, cut a hole in it which is then covered by some non-magnetic material.

[Note,  here are some images of my hall sensor construction]I used a very small magnet, around 5 mm in diameter, and fixed that to the exhaust rocker:

For a Hall sensor Part,

I used the TLE 4905 L,

Back up pdf  here

 mounted on the engine using a piece of copper tube:

Adjusted the exact position of the sensor / tube has been a few times, before I got the optimal position, such that the sensor is activated / deactivated when the valve is about half way pressed.

The finished sensor construction:

 

Surely, the above modification should be easier than making a 2:1 gearing!

Choice is to place the magnet on the EXHAUST valve’s (rocker) arm for the following reason:

 

The EXHAUST stroke is the LAST of the engine’s working cycle. From this point, everything is in the correct order. First the INTAKE stroke, during which the gas will be injected at the correct time (and duration, determining the speed)

 

Now the pulses from the Hall switch can be correctly delayed by the required amounts for the Injection and Ignition functions. Following the INTAKE stroke is COMPRESSION, at the end of which IGNITION takes place.

As the pulses from this single Hall switch usually do not occur exactly where we want them, they need to be ‘moved’ (delayed) to deliver the desired injection/ignition functions at the correct times.

First, some engine basics:

Engine speed is expressed as RPM (Revolutions Per Minute). In electronics, however, the unit of time is SECOND. Since there is 60 seconds in a minute, (it was the last time I checked! (() the engine’s RPM is divided by 60 to get the engine’s ‘frequency’, in Hz.

Example; an engine running at 3600 RPM (crankshaft speed), divided by two is 1800 engine cycles per minute. Divide that by 60 gives 30Hz. It means that the spark plug is going to fire 30 times per second.

One thing is CERTAIN.

IF the fuel is GTNT ONLY and when there is a sufficient volume of it mixed with air in the cylinder and a spark occurs, it WILL explode, regardless of correct or incorrect timing!!!

Due to this fact, irrespective of all other design changes, when starting the engine, injection/ignition pulses MUST be inhibited for at least ONE cycle in order to establish and stabilize the saw tooth waveform.

In practical terms this means that the engine would start on the 2nd (or 3rd ) revolution of cam shaft (4th or 6th revolution of crank shaft) which would NOT be within the firs pull of the cord!! (for manual start) For this reason electric start is needed. (or pull cord extended!)

Once again: Since 1 Hz is 2 crank shaft revolutions, the RPM is 120. 2 Hz is 4 revolutions and thus 240 RPM.

Principle of operation:

1. The first task is to convert the pulse train from the Hall switch to ‘frequency’. [(so that ONE ‘period’ is ONE engine cycle. (4 stroke)] This can be done by either digital or analog means. (or a combination of the two) Both have advantages and disadvantages. While the modern “buzz” word is “microprocessor”, there is no need for it here with its complex software programming. Basically, the two main issues with any design are: simplicity and cost. My choice for this design is analog. It is a relatively simple and low cost design.

2. The engine’s frequency is transformed into a LINEAR saw tooth waveform. This saw tooth is fed to a comparator.

 

The output is a variable duty cycle square wave. [This is the basic principle of the analog Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)]

3. The rising or falling edge of this variable duty cycle square wave is used to trigger the desired ignition/injection action.

New ignition & injection control design

Close examination of my previous design revealed two problems:

1. When starting the engine, an ignition pulse was allowed to occur following the very first pulse from the Hall switch! [At least two (2) pulses are necessary to create & stabilize the desired waveform!]

 

2. Frequency-to-Voltage converters are inherently slow. When rapidly changing the frequency, large amplitude variations are unavoidable. This plays havoc with the injection & ignition timing to the point of being useless!

Note: all this occurs ONLY at very low STARTING frequencies. (1Hz – 5Hz)

First of all, I have drawn a chart I named “4 stroke engine timing cycle”:

BACK UP HERE 

Not only does it aid the understanding of a 4 stroke engine’s work cycle and the injection & ignition process but it also serves as an essential reference for the initial set up of the injection & ignition timing circuits for the engine used.

Like the previous design, this new design is also based on a Hall switch, activated by a magnet attached to the exhaust (or intake) valve’s rocker arm.(Thus, the pulses always occur at the same “degree” of the engine’s work cycle.)

The control circuit’s basic principle of operation also remains the same: creating a linear saw tooth waveform from the pulses supplied by the Hall switch.

However, the new design DOES NOT USE a Frequency to Voltage converter (F/V) which has an inherently slow response. Further, the method of generating the linear saw tooth voltage has also changed. Instead of fast charging the timing capacitor and slowly discharging it with a constant current source, (producing a falling slope) it is now continuously charged by a simple constant current source, producing a rising slope.

The main reason for this change was/is to obtain a Ground (0V) referenced waveform which is much easier to manipulate. (for example in a feed back loop)

The new circuit (pcb.pdfPCB) operates as follows:

The pulse train from the Hall switch, IC1* (on its own pcb), is fed to monostable IC1A’s rising edge input A (pin 4, 4538 dual monostable)

 

The output pulse width is set to 100µs by R3 (10k) and C3 (10n). These pulses (from pin 6) are fed to the falling edge B input of IC1B (pin 11), the ‘clock’ input (pin 14) of IC6 (4017) and also to the ‘logic’ input (pin 8) of track & hold IC5 (LF398) through attenuator resistors R20 (3k3) and R21 (1k).

Monostable IC1B’ (4538-2) output pulse width (100µs, at pin 10) is set by R4 (10k) and C4 (10n). These pulses operate switch Q2 (2N7000) which discharges timing capacitor C5 (0.1µ). Continuously charging C5 is a simple constant current source, comprising of Q1 (BC327), D1 (4148), R6 (3k3) and R7 (270k). (Charging time constant is determined by C5 and R7.)

The resulting linear saw tooth is buffered by IC2 (TL071), wired as a unity gain voltage follower. The buffered saw tooth (output of IC2) is fed to both inputs of IC3 (TL071), a Voltage Controlled Amplifier (VCA) through R8 and R9 (both 10k).

 

The ‘gain’ control elements are P-channel JFETs Q3 and Q4 (both J174), operating in their ‘ohmic’ (linear) region, their D-S voltage being restricted to a few tens of milli volts by the inputs of the OP amp. (IC3)

Since the VCA (IC3) is inverting, the next stage, IC4A (TL072-1) is another inverting amplifier with unity gain (-1). Its output signal (from pin 1) is now of correct polarity and is fed to comparator/error amplifier IC4B’ (TL072-2) inverting (-) input (pin 6). Its non-inverting (+) input (pin 5) is fed with an adjustable voltage from the voltage divider R16 (8k2), P1 (10k) and R17 (22k). These component values give a range of approx. 6.56 – 9.55V (for 12V supply) and 2.73 – 3.98V (for 5V supply) for setting the saw tooth amplitude to the desired level.

The error signal (from the output of IC4B, pin 7) is fed, through R19 (10K) to the input (pin 3) of track/hold IC5 (LF398). At the peak value of the saw tooth, IC5 is put in the Hold mode for the duration of the following cycle. This DC voltage is fed from its output (pin 5) to the gate of Q3 (J174) JFET.

It is this voltage which sets the gain of the VCA.

Thus, the VCA (IC3), the unity gain inverter (IC4A), the comparator/error amplifier (IC4B) and the track/hold stage (IC5) form a feed-back loop to correct the amplitude of the waveform as the frequency changes.

 

[Suppose the starting frequency is 1Hz and the saw tooth P-P amplitude is set to 8V. (3.33V for 5V supply) When the frequency has increased to 2Hz, the amplitude has DECREASED to 4V (1.66V for 5V supply) and needs to be amplified (x2) to bring it to 8V. (3.33V for 5V supply) At 4Hz, the amplitude is 2V (0.83V for 5V supply) and it is amplified by 4 to bring it to 8V (3.33V for 5V supply) and so on….)

Unlike the inherently slow Frequency to Voltage converter, this method stabilizes the waveform amplitude after only ONE completed cycle.

 

This is due to the fact that amplifier action is FAST! (device propagation delays are measured in micro or nano seconds!)

The amplitude AND polarity corrected saw tooth waveform from IC4A’ output (pin 1 & TP9) is fed, through R36 (10k), to the inverting (-) input (pin 2) of another comparator, IC9A (LM393-1). A voltage divider is formed by R34 (22k), P4 (10K) and R35 (33k) and the non-inverting (+) input (pin 3) of IC9A is connected to the wiper of P4 (10k), thus:

P1 is the IGNITION PULSE POSITION adjustment.

The above component values of the voltage divider allow a wide range of adjustment. However, to suit different engine designs, the values of R34 & R35 may be altered.

Since we now have a rising ramp, the voltage on the inverting (-) input (pin 2) of the comparator IC9A (LM393-1) remains below the set point on the inverting (+) input (pin 3). As a result, the output of IC9A stays HIGH until the set point is reached.

 

When that happens, the output snaps LOW. This falling edge pulse triggers monostable IC8A (pin 5).

The output pulse width is set to 100µs by R38 (10k) and C17 (10n) and is available from pin 6 (Q output of IC8A).

These 100µs pulses are fed to the base of ‘emitter follower’ ignition trigger transistor Q9 (BC 547) through R39 (2k2) and R28 (1k). Q9’ collector resistor R29 (390 ohms) supplies the necessary trigger current for SCR1 (TYN816). R30 (470 ohms) & C11 (0.1µF) help to reduce/eliminate spurious noise pulses from the SCR’s gate. (Note: Q9, R28, R29, R30, C11, SCR1 and capacitors C12A,B,C are on the CDI module)

Capacitors C12A,B,C (1µF 400V) are continuously charged to 330V by a DC-DC converter. The stored energy is then dumped into the primary winding of the ignition coil. Thus, it is a CDI (Capacitor Discharge Ignition) system.

In practice, ALL generators are run at a CONSTANT speed somewhere in the range of 2000 to 4000RPM (depending on design). (Remember, this ignition system is designed specifically for ONE cylinder generators.)

4. Auto RPM Circuits 1&2

 

Fuel injection 

 

 IF you are to use GTNT ONLY for ANY engine, you are dealing with Gas

How Ever we can Make Nano Bubble GTNT Saturated Fuel Water 

Both Work

Existing injectors are made for liquid fuel.

They are NOT suitable for gas!

That is why there are injectors made for gas.

They are very different from liquid fuel injectors.

Using them is   different  

 

 Why are Gas Injectors manufactured?  

The answer is simple and it is not even "motor trade" specific, just general physics.

It is fuel VOLUME delivering capacity!

You all know that liquid fuel is highly "concentrated"

(for the lack of a better word) as far as energy goes.

You also know (or should know!) that the same fuel (meaning: containing the same energy) in VAPOR form occupies a space which is ENORMOUS, compared to its liquid VOLUME 

Since we are dealing with water as a fuel here,

perhaps we can use water as an example here, for the purpose of illustrating my point.

So, let's say we have 1 liter of water. It contains a certain amount of energy.

(whatever it is, it is not important for this explanation)

Now we "condition" this 1 liter of water to be in GAS form (GTNT Gas ).

Its VOLUME???

Ordinarily, it will be around 1860 – 2000 liters.

Should you be so clever (or `lucky') to make 100% mono atomic gases,

its VOLUME would be close to 4000 liters!!!

Enter the INJECTOR.

When we "burn" water "as is", the injector has to to only deliver MINUSCULE amount

of fine mist (still liquid).

Just like the injectors for petrol (gasoline). OK?

If we use the Gas Form of  (GTNT) is no longer in liquid form!

Now, do any of you still believe that ordinary injectors made for liquid fuels will be able to deliver that HUGE volume of gas to the engine??? 

I could `test' your knowledge further or simply `stir' you by asking if you know the relationship between volume and the pressures required to deliver  

Gas vs Liquid fuels

I will give you some figures (numbers) 

Say you wish to increase the VOLUME of fuel delivered by the injector.

You want to DOUBLE the volume.

 

What is the required pressure to do that?

Double? NO. It is 4 times.

========================

Do you want 3 times the original volume?

The pressure is now 9 times!

========================

Do you want to go to 4 times of the original volume?

The pressure is now 16 times of what you started with!

========================

Should you want 10 times more fuel injected,

the pressure you need will be 100 times the original pressure!!

========================

As you can see, mathematically, the pressure required is the volume increase squared.

 

 Specific Practical Numbers 

One of the generators I have has a 420cc engine.

(rated output is 7 kW, continuous)

 

For the ease of calculations, let's say it needs

12 L/min. of HydrOxy to run.

 

Dividing 12 liters by 60 (seconds), we get 0.2 L/second.

However, since the fuel INTAKE is only ¼ of the engine's work cycle, that 0.2 L gas

must be injected in ¼ of a second 

In reality, this means that the poor injector would have to deliver

that 0.2 L gas at the rate of 0.8 L/second

You are welcome to try it and please come back to report your results,

particularly the PRESSURE you had to use 

Needless to say, all that fuel is injected in many cycles, depending on engine RPM.

(An engine running at 3600 RPM has 1800 work cycles per minute.

That is 30 injections/ignition s per second.)

 

Do you still feel like using fuel injectors made for liquid fuel for Gtnt Gas injection under ENORMOUS pressure?

Do you REALLY understand the SAFETY implications of this?

You may be forgetting that this ENORMOUS pressure also means ENORMOUS dangers!

IMO, such a set-up would be bordering on INSANITY  No kidding 

I, for one, would NOT want to be around such a set up

One slight mishap and you are DEAD! Period.

If you have ever experimented with `blowing up' GTNT Gas,

you will have an idea of the POWER in that gas.

Otherwise, you really don't have a clue of what you are dealing with!!

Remember, I DID NOT SAY that injectors made for liquid fuel can not inject gas.

Indeed they can and will (shortly) describe a delightful little experiment I made all those years ago!

All I said was (and I repeat it): "They are NOT suitable for gas!"

Buy Some INjectors

I urge you all to pick up an injector for liquid fuel and one made for gas.

Have a good, hard look at them.

What do you see?

One has a TINY (like a `pin hole') "spray" orifice and the other has an opening of several millimeters diameter 

As an example of a gas injector, I have a `JET 21', made by Poliauto in Italy.

Its output port ID is 5.8mm

But its typical working pressure is rated at only 70 kPa rel.

(10.15 PSI) and the maximum is 120 kPa rel. (17.4 PSI).

As for the various types of injection used in car engines,

 At present, virtually all generators are equipped with conventional, carburetor engines.

 " After the flash arrestor then you'll have a rail with set pressure filled with GTNT Gas.

At the end of the rail attach a stock injector controlled by the ECU or for testing, a simple PWM."

 

Fitment Of Injector to 1 kw to 10 Kw engines

My choice is to remove the carburetor, make a simple air intake manifold (if necessary) and fit the gas injector to the manifold, as close to the cylinder inlet as practical.

Thus, the gas is injected into the intake manifold when the intake valve is open and by the time it closes at the end of the intake stroke, it is all sucked into the cylinder, together with the air so there is NO gas left in the manifold during the other ¾ of the cycle.

I consider this to be important because IF there is a backfire,

there is NO gas to explode in the inlet manifold

We install Manifold and Crank Cask pressure release for letting out back Fires on large engine small not needed

ECU control.

 

I  named my control unit ECU, however, as you know, I don't use microprocessors!

Remember, with Gtnt Gas ONLY, there are only TWO parameters to be controlled:

1. Ignition timing

2. Injection

In short; when we get to the larger engines (cars), the first thing we have to do is to rip out the "computer" and install our own system, incorporating electronic injection as well.

(Perhaps another option could be to completely re-program the `computer',

provided that one could obtain the original programming software from the manufacturer, which,

I would say, is HIGHLY unlikely!) = WELCOME TO HYDRUINO LOL

I am in favor of electronic injection

(but ONLY for GTNT) for

Three reasons:

1. Power Loss Gain I reason that if we allow GTNT Gas to flow continuously, some of it may   

                                  disappear during the other ¾ of the engine's work cycle.

                                  (the intake stroke is only ¼ cycle)

2. BACKFIRE  If GTNT Gas is ALWAYS present in the intake manifold, we may risk

                         a damaging back fire.

3. Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) makes RPM control possible.

Now to that experiment with the liquid fuel injector I mentioned earlier:

 Anyway, I thought, what can I do with this injector?

I replaced the leaking hose and attached it to the gas output of the Voltrolysis Unit I had at the time.

However, I needed to control the gas input to it and then ignite the gas coming out.

So I quickly set up an old spark plug, ignition coil and a `transistor' electronic ignition.

I also set up an electronic injection control an a `bread board'.

[I just found the old, hand drawn diagram the other day.

The ignition was set to approx. 1.3 Hz – 18.5 Hz.

Injection pulse width was adjustable from about 100 µs to 2.1 ms.

 

There was also an adjustable delay (few milliseconds) stage to allow the injector

to close before the spark arrived]

I simply placed the injector flat on the bench top and also the spark plug, facing the output orifice of the injector. The distance between them was about 30 mm.

I also placed a plastic "spaghetti" (about 15 mm diameter) between the injector and the spark plug. That was to prevent the gas rising (and disappearing! ) too quickly!

Thus, what I had was effectively an open ended `cylinder'.

One end had the injector and the other end the spark plug, both entering the "spaghetti" openings slightly.

I turned on the Voltrolysis Unit  built up the pressure to 15 PSI and then turned the power off.

First, I set the `speed' control to minimum, powered up the injection/ignition electronics and

the show started I tell you. It was MUSIC to my ears!

It started firing about once a second and as I was turning up the `speed', it was like rapidly repeating miniature EXPLOSIONS!

It sounded like a miniature "lawn mower" 

I truly enjoyed playing with it and demonstrated it to many who were interested!

After a couple weeks I got the idea to have it in a CLOSED (aluminium) cylinder,

so I made one on the lathe.

  

GTNT Gas recombination is an electron migration process where water is used as

a Zero Point Energy proxy. 

 

Note

if you don't change the timing the engine runs like a pig, back fires, can bend valves and can burn hole in piston. Plus it requires a HUGE amount of gas just to barely run. When properly tuned and blank spark sorted all these issues vanish. 

From Townsville. [about 2000km from here (Melbourne)]

  He played with it for a while, exploded a bit of the gas, etc., to get the feel of it all. He gained respect for the power of Hydroxy. Next, he made a larger, 7 cell unit, following the same design principles.

It produces 3 L/min. of Hydroxy. Not having a proper power supply, he powered the cell from a small alternator, driven by a small electric motor. At that stage, he did not measure the power input to the cell. He mentioned that he had the impression that only the two outer cells were producing gas. I said that didn’t make sense and asked him to make some measurements. I told him to remove the top of the cell, power it up and measure the voltage between the plates for each cell. One by one.

This test returned the following results:

When powered from a (car) battery, the voltage was the same across each pair of plates (cells), 1.72V which adds up to 12.04V (which was the battery voltage under load) Then, he powered the cell from the alternator and measured 1.95V across each cell which adds up to 13.65V. He borrowed a DC clamp meter and measured the current to be 40A.

 

That means he was putting 13.65 x 40 = 546W into the cell to produce 3 L/min. of gas.

Then he had the idea to try to run a lawn mower on it. (He invited a friend who is also interested in this technology, to give him a hand.)

They started the lawn mower on petrol and ran the carburetor dry and the engine stopped. Then they fed the Hydroxy in and it ran beautifully for the about 2 minutes when they experienced a back fire which promptly destroyed his ‘bubbler’!

 

No-one was hurt and the only ‘casualty’ was the poor bubbler which was made of Acrylic! (That is a NO-NO! – UNLESS it is designed with a pop-off top! He also made the mistake of allowing about 4” – which is WAY too much - of gas on the top of the water!)

George made the comment that there was more gas than was needed to run that lawn mower. (the gas pressure was building up)

 

There was NO adjustment or modifications to the engine.

He does not know the size (cubic capacity) but according to a professional friend of mine who repairs LARGE number of lawn mowers, most of them are no less than 148cc. According to him, engines of that size are normally rated at around 3.5 horse power. Now, considering the above figures it is clear that so-called ‘over unity’ has already been achieved as the engine produces more power than it needs to make its own fuel!

 

George then wanted to make a 120 cell unit so I emailed him my drawings. He followed them ‘to the letter’, according to him, did not deviate ‘one iota’ from the drawings!

 

When he ‘fired it up’ for the first time, he instantly blew all his mains power 15A fuses! He then phoned me and I advised him to fill the cell only partially. In order to not to blow his fuses, he could only fill the cell about 40mm from the bottom.

 

Even then, after about 2-3 minutes, his circuit breakers (which I advised him to use) were tripping again! However, before the circuit breakers tripped, he made some measurements. The gas (HHO) was pouring out at a rate of 36 L/minute!! Sure, the power input was something like 3.6kW (240Vx15A) but hey, that is about 100 W/L per minute!

In short: he had NO means of controlling the power input since my AC phase control circuit design was not ready at that time! [As a temporary supply, I made him a box with a 25A bridge rectifier (on a heath sink) and a 20A moving coil meter in it. (you can see this box in some of the pictures)]

The whole point is that the efficiency of that set up was/is over 200% ‘Faraday’!

George sent me many pictures of that cell and the whole set up. He also took pictures of how they made the grooves for the plates with his friend’s OLD milling machine! But he took those with the “old fashioned” film camera and sent me the copies in the mail.

The story does not stop there! Next thing I knew, George ‘modified’ a router table to make the grooves him self and took some photos of the modifications! This time, however, he took those pictures with a digital camera at my request and emailed them to me!

He made one Acrylic board with the 120 grooves for me as well and sent it to me! (You can see it in one of the attached pictures.) That is what I am going to use to make my 120 cell electrolyzer for the prototype set up.

Now to the POINT of this long story:

Here we have a man (George, now 83) who, at the age of 81, modified a router table and made 120 grooves, all by himself, while others are moaning and groaning, bitching about how difficult and complicated everything is! As an example, here is a quote from a post (and my response to it) which appeared more than 3 years on the ‘waterfuelforall.com’ Forum:

 

“The  cell project is a big, tedious, expensive, complicated, and highly problematic build for guys that are either not electronically inclined and/or are not mechanically inclined.

 

  Therefore, it might be a good idea to build a smaller cell to begin with using the size plates recommended   I'm thinking a 10 tube cell would be a good place to start in a double tank .

 

  It would be much cheaper to fabricate than the larger cells and also much easier to build.  If after testing it you decided that you wanted a bigger cell, you could always use the plates out of the smaller cell in your larger cell. 

 

That way, all you would have lost would be a little acrylic/ABS and your time.  You would however have gained a lot of experience though. 

 

Some of you will never attempt to build a large cell, so you might as well attempt the smaller cell.  This way you could build the system first hand and gain a whole lot of experience and expertise.  If you are not a serious builder and/or that handy with tools,

 

I'd suggest building the smaller cell and testing it out.  That way you can brag to your friends at least and say that you did make a

cell. 

Don't let this project scare you off before you get started!  There is to much to be gained from this technology for you not to get involved and build this system. 

 

The trick is to start small and work your way up to big if it's not your cup of tea.  Do not be scared away.  This technology is within your grasp, so take my challenge and build this system whether you are (mechanically inclined)/(electronically inclined) or not!

 

  

You will be able to detect hydrocarbons in the exhaust as the engine requires 4 stroke crankcase oil. Tiny amounts will be traceable as it lubes the engine. BUT this is NOT the source of the energy.

HHO recombination undergoes transformations due to valance electron binding regardless of the chemical reactions taking place it IS for all intents an Electron mitigating process and ambient energy is added to the recomposition back to water.   

 

This aspect is almost ALWAYS left out of Faraday equations where typical net energy gain for HHO often has a COP>3! While pulsed resonance electrolysis will increase the nett energy gain further still its NOT required to do so to realize OU. In fact conventional electrolysis can and does already yield excess energy with ICE and actually causes the ICE to run much colder than with gasoline mix or pure browns gas.

 

To copy what i wrote elsewhere about this..

This is why in the looper for argument set some numbers and say they need 1kw to break the water to HHO. This yields potential energy of of least 3kw upon recombination. 1kW will be used to run the engine although a lot will go as heat and can be recovered.

2kw will used to run generator which is also only 75% efficient but it will generate 1500 watts nett and recover the 1kw required to run the cell. Some 500 watts OU are left in the system. Its enough to run a 500 watt flood lamp.

 

Despite ALL the losses there is enough OU to make it work.

This is why even when using tiny amounts in a car engine it has a great effect on the fuel economy. Its not just about making a clean burn it adds energy at the point of recombination to water far beyond that of conventional electrolysis took to break it apart.

 

If you add typical 3kw of real RE energy to a car engine AND increase performance through a better burn of carbon products raising efficiency from 23% to 29% it could easy result in an extra 5kw - 10kw of extra power on the wheels which is about 10% of typical 100Kw car. Its enough to turn on a tiny HHO cell and feel the extra KICK on the engine or increase mileage by 30-50% at steady 50-60MPH To fully realize these gains requires the map chip or oxygen sensors "lifting" to prevent excess fuel usage.

Youtube probably has some hundreds if not thousands of testimonies to this fact.

 

After all anyone with some sense can see something special is happening far beyond the 500 watts of DC going into the cells.

 

With fuel cost rising again at alarming rates semi truck drives with HHO twin stacks are getting from 6 - 8 mpg increased to 10 - 14 MPG. This represents a fuel saving of some \$25,000 per year.

All,

I note that my “Running series cell Voltrolysis on chopped (gated) on 50/60Hz AC power”  . Perhaps I should have pointed out that it contains important information which applies to ALL types of Voltrolysis cells! It also gives a brief explanation of the relationship between applied cell voltage versus current.

 

As I see it, this confusion was created (not on purpose) by the dialogue between ‘bolt’ and ‘Feynman’. While ‘Feynman’ was referring to my “Synchronized 3 frequency PWM” design (which I supplied him privately just a couple of weeks ago), ‘bolt’ was referring to my ignition/injection circuit “igninje5.sch”!!

I have the impression that they didn’t even realize this themselves!

I like ‘bolt’s positive attitude and also his explanations, which I mostly agree with. However, however…..

 

What I don’t like is that he ALWAYS talks only in general, course terms but never in DETAILED, SPECIFIC terms which is what’s required by most of the readers of any Forum!

He also OVER-SIMPLIFY things!! Further, he is still promoting his technically WRONG ideas to eliminate the waste spark and make the ignition adjustable.

This forum is supposed to be for education, learning, etc. It is against my ethics to remain silent when I see TECHNICALLY WRONG “solutions” being offered! OK?

If you go back a few posts you will find that I have already made ‘bolt’ aware of the fallacy of the idea he presented. (By the way, he is not the only one who promotes that idea) He choose to argue the point and I see he is still promoting it!

I don’t really know if he understands or not that it is WRONG. Perhaps he does but just hopes to get away with a “near enough is good enough” solution!

To put it bluntly: if any of you end up implementing bolt’s idea of using a ‘divide by two flip flop’ to eliminate the waste sparks AND a fixed time delay (using a 555) to try to adjust ignition timing, you may be in for an unpleasant surprise! Mark my words!

Some of you may think that I am trying to force MY WAY on everyone here. To be brutally honest, I could not care less if any of you try to use my designs or not! However, I like to think that perhaps the “silent majority” of the readers here see the benefits of what I am sharing.

Regardless, I forge ahead with my plans of making these complete generator set-ups available to those who cannot make their own for whatever reasons.

By the time I complete this project, all of you will also have the necessary technical info, down to the last detail, to be able to complete yours, if you so desire.

Some people seems to be blinded by the ‘parts count’ of a circuit and call it complex. As for me, I don’t measure circuit ‘complexity’ by its ‘parts count’! To explain: just because a circuit has, say, 50 resistors, 30 capacitors, 10 diodes, 7 transistors, 12 ICs, (all of them dirt cheap) etc., that circuit is NOT ‘complex’!

 Maybe, just  ask yourselves the question:

Why did Industry go to all that trouble for several years, designing a large number of circuits and wrote detailed explanations? 

Because they are ALL needed for what I call correct ENGINE MANAGEMENT.

  

 It is certainly true that “a picture is worth a thousand words”. Therefore, I have put considerable effort into this new, brief explanation, supported by oscilloscope screen images.

 

Latest oscilloscope, the ‘ScreenScope’,  in Australia.

 

Unfortunately, however, it still has some minor “bugs” (software) which I reported to the designer and he is working on a ‘fix’ now. One of those “bugs” is that the ‘Auto measure’ Frequency reading on ‘Channel 1’ is WRONG while its graticule (grid) reading is CORRECT. (Channel 2’s ‘Auto measure’ Frequency reading is CORRECT and so is its graticule.)

Otherwise, the images I present here are good enough for the purpose of this explanation.

OK. Here we go: In the image ‘sawto2’ you see a saw tooth. That saw tooth is created from 2 pulses from the Hall switch. The time period between ANY two subsequent pulses from the Hall switch IS the total time of a complete WORK cycle of the engine.

Repeat:

 

THAT SAW TOOTH REPRESENTS THE ENTIRE WORK CYCLE OF THE ENGINE 

As the engine speed changes, the time period (frequency) of the saw tooth changes accordingly.

Now to image ‘ignpu’: Here you see the saw tooth again, PLUS a narrow (100µs) IGNITION trigger pulse. (Channel 2, green trace)

So how was/is this trigger pulse created? By using the EXACT same principle as a PWM! You feed that saw tooth into one input of a comparator while supplying an ADJUSTABLE voltage to its other input and BINGO, you are “in business”! OK. I use an additional monostable IC as well, which can be edge triggered on the rising (or falling) input pulse. With that, I create the EXACT pulse length I want.

Now, this IGNITION trigger pulse can be moved to ANY point on the slope!

 

THIS IS HOW THE IGNITION POSITION IS ADJUSTED 

 In the ‘inject’ image, you see the SAME saw tooth is fed to another comparator but the process is EXACTLY the same as for the ignition pulse creation.

The only difference is the pulse WIDTH. The pulse POSITION is changed by one control (potentiometer) and another control changes the pulse WIDTH which is the actual SPEED control of the engine 

Since all my oscilloscopes (4) are only dual trace, I can’t show you the real life situation where the IGNITION and INJECTION pulses are super imposed on the same saw tooth.

All images were recorded from the bread board set up so just ignore the noise on the saw tooth.             (By the way, the noise DOES NOT interfere with circuit operation.)

That straight (but noisy!) slope of the saw tooth is my “software”, 

 

Calculating the voltage to the comparator in order to place a pulse at ANY point on the slope takes me perhaps 3 minutes. Compare THAT to the HUNDREDS OF HOURS of programming and ‘de-bugging’ time for a microprocessor!

(NOT my figures! It came from expert programmers with over 20 years of experience!)

With the help of these images, perhaps everyone can now see AND understand that the PRINCIPLE used in this design GUARANTEES that both the ignition and injection pulses are ALWAYS at the same DEGREE of engine rotation, REGARDLESS of RPM!

Well, so much for the arguments of 555 time delays and divide by two flip- flops, etc.!

 

4.Auto RPM Description

Next up (in a few days) is the 240V phase control power supply with 2.4kW capacity.

 

Because the Voltrolysis Unit  produces GTNT

NOT pure mono-atomic H+H+O but a combination of di-atomic and mono-atomic,

H2 + O2 + H + O. Missing Electrons and not able to readily rejoin to being water

As everyone knows, water is: H2O

When split with DC current electrolysis, the gas is: H2 + O2

(Note that the If Normal devolved gases are in their di-atomic state ONLY.)

 

This for of HHO gas has the LOWEST energy level implosive . (About ¼ (25%)

of the pure mono-atomic H+H+O.)GTNT Explosive

 

With PULSED DC electrolysis, we get “Brown’s Gas” or HydrOxy, H2 + O2 + H + O,

(di-atomic plus some mono-atomic gas.)

 

Its energy level varies with the ratio of di-atomic/mono-atomic gases but usually will be about twice (2X) the energy level of the H2 + O2 gas which is created with DC current.

With RESONANCE (NOT electrolysis!), we should get ‘pure’ HHO (H+H+O). It has the HIGHEST energy level. About 4X more than H2 + O2 (using DC current)

The importance of this should be obvious.

If not, let me illustrate it with a practical example which everyone can understand.

Let’s look at two (2) experimenters: “A” and “B” Their set-ups are IDENTICAL, with ONE exception. Their electrolyzers (and the power supplies powering them) are DIFFERENT. But they produce the SAME volume of gas.

Here comes the “weird” bit.

Experimenter “A” runs his generator 100% on WATER. PLUS other load.

Experimenter “B” needs to ADD hydrocarbon fuel. He does not have ‘enough’ gas!

But, I repeat, they have the SAME VOLUME of gas!

 

So what is different?

“B” is using a LOW VOLTAGE, HIGH CURRENT DC POWER SUPPLY to power his electrolyzer. Further, he has just a few cells in series, then, groups of these are in parallel. That combination produces only H2 and O2 , di-atomic (molecular) gases!

“A” has a large number of cells in SERIES and uses HIGH VOLTAGE PULSED DC power supply. His set-up produces H2 + O2 + H + O (di-atomic plus some mono-atomic gas).

 

From my short article titled “Running series cell electrolyzers on 50/60 Hz AC power”, here is a quote:

“It needs to be pointed out that in order to make QUALITY gas (HHO, Hydroxy, Brown’s Gas, etc.), PULSING is necessary. George Wiseman has also pointed this out in his “Brown’s Gas Book Two” which he published many years ago.

 

Quote (from page 18): “Power supply considerations

If we apply straight DC current to the electrolyzer, we find the oxygen and hydrogen devolving to their di-atomic state. We get NO Brown’s Gas.

The electricity MUST be pulsed to an electrolyzer to produce Brown’s Gas; 120 cps is sufficient to produce Brown’s Gas, even 100 cps will work; so regular wall cycles will work.” End quote.”

So, the ‘bottom line’ is: the HIGHER the mono-atomic (H+H+O) portion of the gas, the LESS the engine will need to run.

 

There are two main requirements for running engines on water ONLY:

 

1. Quality gas (a portion of it MUST be mono-atomic, GTNT missing electrons )

2. Engine management

If these are ignored (or compromised), it is most unlikely that you will succeed in running engines 100% on water. Instead, you will end up with a fancy “booster”.

This also explains why so few in the past have succeeded using water as the only fuel.

OK. If you have problems accepting the above explanation, I suggest you watch the video with Oliver & Valentin again. Closely.

Pay attention to their cell AND its power supply on the trolley. What do you see?? A LARGE capacity VARIAC (AC mains supply). On its moving arm you see a heath sink (probably for the rectifier power diodes). Next to the VARIAC is what looks like a power resistor bar (current limiter?).

 

Even without knowing all the details of their set-up, we can safely conclude that it is an un-filtered HV power supply, PULSING at 100Hz. (twice the mains frequency)

IMO, that is one of the 3 reasons why they have a looped, running system with excess power.

 

The second is their SERIES cell. (Anton cell)

The third is IGNITION TIMING. A bit crude but it works.

 

No, this is NOT just another, detailed, lengthy circuit description!! It is only a BRIEF technical explanation of the PRINCIPLE behind that design and I don’t go into circuit details (on the component level) at all!

It is certainly true that “a picture is worth a thousand words”. Therefore, I have put considerable effort into this new, brief explanation, supported by oscilloscope screen images.

Before I go on, just a few words about those images. The original images are in ‘bitmap’ (BMP) and are very nice but since this Forum does not accept that format, I had to convert them to another format. Further, a couple of things needs to be pointed out in case some of you examine those images and readings in DETAIL!

Here I have used my latest oscilloscope, the ‘ScreenScope’, (only 6 months old) which was designed and made here in Australia. Unfortunately, however, it still has some minor “bugs” (software) which I reported to the designer and he is working on a ‘fix’ now. One of those “bugs” is that the ‘Auto measure’ Frequency reading on ‘Channel 1’ is WRONG while its graticule (grid) reading is CORRECT.

 

(Channel 2’s ‘Auto measure’ Frequency reading is CORRECT and so is its graticule.)

Otherwise, the images I present here are good enough for the purpose of this explanation.

 

In the image ‘sawto2’ you see a saw tooth. That saw tooth is created from 2 pulses from the Hall switch. The time period between ANY two subsequent pulses from the Hall switch IS the total time of a complete WORK cycle of the engine.

Repeat: THAT SAW TOOTH REPRESENTS THE ENTIRE WORK CYCLE OF THE ENGINE!!

As the engine speed changes, the time period (frequency) of the saw tooth changes accordingly.

Now to image ‘ignpu’: Here you see the saw tooth again, PLUS a narrow (100µs) IGNITION trigger pulse. (Channel 2, green trace)

So how was/is this trigger pulse created? By using the EXACT same principle as a PWM! You feed that saw tooth into one input of a comparator while supplying an ADJUSTABLE voltage to its other input and BINGO, you are “in business”! OK. I use an additional monostable IC as well, which can be edge triggered on the rising (or falling) input pulse. With that, I create the EXACT pulse length I want.

Now, this IGNITION trigger pulse can be moved to ANY point on the slope! THIS IS HOW THE IGNITION POSITION IS ADJUSTED!

I told you it is almost unbelievably simple!! Once you ‘grasp’ it, I think you will agree with that statement!

In the ‘inject’ image, you see the SAME saw tooth is fed to another comparator but the process is EXACTLY the same as for the ignition pulse creation.

The only difference is the pulse WIDTH. The pulse POSITION is changed by one control (potentiometer) and another control changes the pulse WIDTH which is the actual SPEED control of the engine!

Since all my oscilloscopes (4) are only dual trace, I can’t show you the real life situation where the IGNITION and INJECTION pulses are super imposed on the same saw tooth.

All images were recorded from the bread board set up so just ignore the noise on the saw tooth. (By the way, the noise DOES NOT interfere with circuit operation.)

That straight (but noisy!) slope of the saw tooth is my “software”, if you like!! Calculating the voltage to the comparator in order to place a pulse at ANY point on the slope takes me perhaps 3 minutes. Compare THAT to the HUNDREDS OF HOURS of programming and ‘de-bugging’ time for a microprocessor! (NOT my figures! It came from expert programmers with over 20 years of experience!)

With the help of these images, perhaps everyone can now see AND understand that the PRINCIPLE used in this design GUARANTEES that both the ignition and injection pulses are ALWAYS at the same DEGREE of engine rotation, REGARDLESS of RPM!

 

2.4kW HV phase control power supply circuit diagram,

 The reason for two boards is isolation. HV (AC and DC) on one board and the low voltage control circuit on the other.

Note that the isolation is performed by a 20A Hall effect current sensor. (see description)

Next up is the optical (IR) water/electrolyte level sensors and re-fill electronics!

 

 

 perhaps some of you would like to know that I have now successfully completed the design of the feedback loop for the ‘automatic RPM control’ circuit.

It works better than I expected!

Since ‘super’ accuracy is hardly needed for the generator’s output frequency of 50Hz, I did not make any accuracy measurements but regulation seems to be very tight (probably within 1%). More about this in the circuit description.

Further, the feedback loop has also eliminated the Digital Potentiometer and associated components so the overall design is considerably simplified!

My next task is the pcb layout. Circuit diagram and description are already done but because of changes sometimes necessary during the pcb layout, some editing may be required.

Thus, the diagram, description and pcb layout will be released together.

HHo Genset HYdroxy Hydrogen Video Loop

How is it APPLIED to an engine??

 

 (4 stroke engine timing cycle) If not,  save it and PRINT it!

 

Now put that drawing on your desk and turn it about 30 degrees anti- clockwise.

(So that the line with the markings of

 

270 – 0 – 90 – 180 – 270 degrees

 

which was horizontal before, now is on an angle, RISING to the right!

That rising line you now see is the SAME as the ‘slope’ of the saw tooth in those oscilloscope images 

General suggestions on how to set up this ignition/injection system on your engine.

Make sure you understand and follow these instructions closely  If you don’t, you will not only end up with a non-working system but also run a real risk of doing DAMAGE to your engine!

 

 “if you don't change the timing the engine runs like a pig, back fires, can bend valves and can burn hole in piston. Plus it requires a HUGE amount of gas just to barely run. When properly tuned and blank spark sorted all these issues vanish.”)

By the way, a properly set up fuel injection virtually ELIMINATES back fires

That does NOT mean that you should operate your set-up without a flash back arrestor  

 

IMO, you should NEVER, EVER operate ANY kind of system running on HHO without an appropriate flash back arrestor!

 

It is the “life insurance” of your electrolyzer and perhaps your entire system!

OK. First, REMOVE the fuel tank, the carburetor (only if you want to use injection) and the ignition module (which most likely includes the coil) PERMANENTLY and the valve cover AND the spark plug TEMPORARILY 

There are two reasons for removing the spark plug:

1. It will be MUCH easier to turn the crank shaft by hand as there is

NO compression when the cylinder is OPEN!

2. It is easier to determine when the piston is at TDC and BDC.

For BDC you may have to use a ‘stick’, (through the plug hole) placing

one end of it against the top of the piston.

  • After you have removed the valve cover, identify the EXHAUST valve and

its rocker arm.

 

Since this arm is most likely made of steel, the magnet will stick to it.

Once you have determined the TYPE, SIZE and the POSITION of your magnet

and it operates the Hall switch properly, it can be glued to the arm, using

HIGH temperature Epoxy resin.

Note: we may (or may not) get away with using ‘Neo’ magnets. It will depend on how hot (or cool) the engine will run with ONLY HHO. ‘Neo’ (Neodymium-Iron-Boron) magnets start losing their magnetism above 150°C! We may need to use Samarium-Cobalt or even ‘Ceramic’ magnets (which can “take the heath” but are not as strong as ‘Neo’s).

  • Make a mounting bracket for the tiny Hall switch circuit board and

attach the  assembly TEMPORARILY to the engine block in such a way that you can

easily ADJUST its position.

  • Apply 12V DC (with the correct polarity!) to the Hall switch circuit.

In the absence of a magnetic field, the LED will turn ON at power-up. (This may only apply to the Melexis Hall switch I use.)

  • Now turn the crank shaft by hand and watch the movement of the rocker

arm with the magnet AND watch the indicator LED!

  • The physical POSITION of the piston where the LED turns OFF, corresponds

with the  vertical “retrace” line at the START of the slope you see in the saw tooth waveform

The purpose of the process I just described is to find (in degrees of camshaft rotation) the physical position of the piston when the pulse from the Hall switch arrives!

From there on, from this single pulse, our electronics is first going to derive not just one but TWO different pulses (ignition and injection) and then place them EXACTLY where they need to be!

(The details on how this is done is explained in the circuit description.)

A few words about the new drawing:

 

The large RED dots on the slope indicate the TDC and BDC positions of the piston.

 

The 4 BLUE dots are half-way position marks (45°) in each of the 4 cycles.

 

The BLACK dots mark each 10° of CAM shaft rotation. Dotted lines (GREEN and PURPLE) indicate the limits of the injection and ignition pulse positions.

 

BLACK dotted lines show that the Hall switch pulse length is almost the same as the opening time of the exhaust valve.

The RED and BLUE horizontal lines intersecting the 30° slope of the saw tooth are the voltages applied to the ignition and injection comparators, respectively. Both pulse POSITIONS on the slope are adjusted by varying these voltages!

THE POINTS WHERE THESE LINES INTERSECT THE SLOPE INDICATE THE PISTON’S POSITION IN THEIR RESPECTIVE CYCLES

 

 One of the characteristics is that it requires only a VERY, VERY low energy spark to ignite/detonate! Thus, HIGH energy sparks, particularly PLASMA sparks, are a HUGE over-kill and thus are completely un-necessary

  

Personally, I would not complicate things further with water vapor injection, for the following reason(s): 1. Some people on this site are already complaining about the complexity of my

published designs.

2. Extra cost. Besides, my set-up will produce WAY more additional power than the generator requires to run! I know some don’t believe this but so be it. I could not care less

Just watch the video presented at the start of this thread. I would say that generator used by Oliver & Valentin is rated at no more than 1800W. I have a brand new generator sitting here….waiting!...rated at 9kW (8kW continuous) Folks, we are talking several kW of excess power! Get used to it.

Enough said.  

 

First, here is a brief summary of what I wrote elsewhere about engine management:

It may not be obvious to the average person but engine management was NEVER

“simple” for ANY fuel!

Generally, complexity is hidden from view by the ‘black box’ approach.

Average replacement cost of a “modern” car ECU is around \$1200 to \$1500!!

This alone indicates two things: 1. ECUs ARE fairly complex 2. BIG TIME rip off!

And yet, in car engines, piston(s) position information is DIRECTLY available from the CAM shaft. For small engines, there is no such “luxury”! The cam shaft is (usually) NOT accessible from the outside of the engine!

For CORRECT operation, we NEED a signal from the CAM shaft, NOT the crank shaft! (Despite all arguments to the contrary!)

This fact makes our task a bit more complicated.

On the other hand, our ‘new’, FAST burning fuel (HydrOxy) makes ignition point setting a LOT simpler than for ANY other fuel!

Here is a quote from my “Ignition system for small engines 2” article:

“It needs to be pointed out that the ignition system for HydrOxy ONLY (not just a booster) will be very different from ignition systems for hydrocarbon fuels. It will be significantly simpler.

There will be NO “speed mapping”, NO “load mapping”, NO retard/advance change with engine RPM, NO rich/lean mixture setting, NO cold start setting, NO “knock sensor”, NO fuel/air temperature sensor, NO Oxygen sensor, etc., etc., (“modern” engines are full of all that rubbish!)

 

There will be NO need for high energy sparks, multiple sparks, etc. Further, there will be NO such thing as UNBURNED fuel remaining in the cylinders!!” End quote.

Don’t forget that my ignition control design is based on my CDI module.

Keep in mind that its power requirement is only 6W (maximum) at 6000RPM! (At lower RPM, it is less. See further details in the circuit description.) It is triggered by my ignition control circuit.

If you intend using only some sections of my ECU design, that is OK, EXCEPT trying to use an old, power hungry (60 – 120W) Kettering type ignition with a power transistor switch, you are on your own

 

 (In that case, you have to not only ADD your own driver interphase to drive your switch but also have to provide an additional power supply capable of supplying 5-10A, just to create ignition sparks! This would also require a MUCH larger power transformer.)

My CDI (Capacitor Discharge Ignition) design has been published more than once since its release about 3 years ago but NOT in this thread. That means most of you will not have it.

  The test oscillator (4046 VCO test osc.sch) is for setting up & adjusting the ignition/injection control circuits. IMO, a CDI system is essential for this kind of projects.  

 

 I have tested the “super simple”, capacitive current limiting power supply extensively 

While capacitors are wonderful current limiters, they also have some disadvantages.

I am sure you will be pleased to know that we can go one step further and eliminate the current limiting capacitors altogether!! Then, it will become a SINGLE (one) component power supply! The ULTIMATE power supply!

(Sure, there are a few additional parts there but their role is ONLY to switch the power ON/OFF, electronically.)

There will be no need for any other form of current limiting either!

The way to do this is simple.

All it needs is careful adjustment of the number of cells in the Voltrolysis unit 

 

This needs to be found experimentally since it cannot be easily calculated. If you have too many cells, you will NOT get the current you desire because the voltage across each cell will be too low.

(I suggest you have a look at the V/A graph for a single cell in my file.)

On the other hand, if there are not enough cells to fill the “voltage window” of your power source, you need to limit the current with capacitors or some other form of current limiting. But once the correct number of cells are found, the system becomes self- regulating!

Those who have experimented/worked with series cell Voltrolysis Units  would (or should!) know that the most important parameters for setting the desired LOW CURRENT  High Voltage are:

 

Most Important Fuel Making Cell Parameters

1. Tube Length = surface area

2. Distance (gap) between the plates for each ‘cell’ (setting the ‘cell’ voltage)

3. Distilled Water Quality  (Capacitance  /resistance of the solution)

4. Temperature

  If any of you wish to duplicate my set-up, your voltage & current supply limits will be the same as your generator is capable of supplying. Of course, you will NOT need all the current it can supply just to run itself. That would defeat the entire purpose of this project!

As an example: the generator I have is rated 240V, 7kW CONTINUOUS (9kW max.) So, even IF, I repeat, even IF it used half of its power to run itself (which it won’t!), that would leave 3.5kW to run LOADS!

EXAMPLE LOAD TARGET

Just to give you an idea how much GTNT gas you can expect from my set up, Example Voltrolysis Unit  (which he made EXACTLY to my specifications), already produces 13 liters/minute with only 8.6A AC current draw from the mains, before being ‘conditioned’ to DC

 PF (Power Factor) 

When dealing with AC POWER (WATT), beware of this “strange PF fellow”!

(It seems to confuse even some ‘professionals’!)

In simple terms, PF (cosφ) is the ratio between REAL and APPARENT power.

To explain:

\In the case of Voltrolysis Unit example above, note that the consumed REAL power is NOT the voltage (240V) multiplied by the current (8.6A) reading, which is 2064W.

2064W is just the APPARENT power.

But since there is a capacitor in the AC line, the PF is no longer 1.00 but lower.

The PF is 1.00 ONLY for purely resistive loads.

 

Once the load becomes capacitive and/or inductive,

the PF drops below 1.00. (How much lower depends on several things.

 

PF Example:

When I ran my 6 cell “demo” Voltrolysis unit with the capacitive current limiter directly from

240V AC, 10A AC current draw , the power factor (PF) was only 0.06 to 0.07!

 

So, APPARENT power was 240x10= 2400W.

BUT when multiplied with the PF of 0.06, the result is 144W!

That was the REAL power used.)

See the HUGE difference?

To double check, I made a quick test with one of my instruments ( a cheap one)

which measures V, A, W & PF, one at the time.

 

It computes (multiplies) the V, A & PF readings and displays W. And, surprise, surprise….it displays VERY close to the value I calculated, using the PF!

At present, Voltrolysis Unit Example is using a capacitance of 300µF in the power supply.

The capacitive reactance of 300µF (AC ‘resistance’ at 50Hz) is 10.6 Ohms. It “passes”

a current of 8.6A in his set-up. (measured with a clamp meter)

For those who intend to use the

capacities current limiting method:

Make sure you understand how it works, otherwise you may end up thoroughly confused!

 

The “confusion” comes mainly from the fact that a capacitor’s ‘reactance’ is INVERSELY proportional to its capacitance!

 

In other words: the HIGHER the capacitance, the LOWER the ‘reactance’.

Consider this:

The experiment with the 6 cell Voltrolysis Unit I described above used 135µF for a current of 10A (AC)

 

But Example  cell unit used 300µF for 8.6A (AC) and if it is to be increased to 10A,

it will need an additional 20µF – a total of 320µF

Do you see what I mean?

In both cases the current is 10A but the capacitance is 135µF and 320µF, respectively!

Please note that when REAL power readings on ANY circuit are taken on the AC side,

ALL losses are included in the results.

 

Further, note that the loss (heath) in the bridge rectifier’s 4 diodes is CONSTANT, REGARDLESS of the number of ‘cells’ in the set-up.

(That is because the SAME current is flowing through every cell.)

To put this in practical terms:

The bridge rectifier gets just as hot with 1 cell as with 9 cells (or more), so a fair size heath sink is required to properly cool it, regardless of the number of cells in the set-up.

To the keen observer it should be obvious that while that loss is CONSTANT, it is significant when running just a few cells (or just 1) but becomes less and less significant as the number of cells go up.

My advice to those who try to measure REAL AC power is:

Know & understand the parameters you are trying to measure and use instruments designed for those measurements. (Otherwise you may end up with totally false results!)

Yes, I also have precision instruments which measure all parameters (V, A, W & PF) with rated accuracies ranging from ±1% to ±0.2%, so the results are not misleading.

Resonance” Voltrolysis",

the real situation is this: Use the 9XB or 9XA Solutions Run fine no

w , Join as a Master Builder Member to learn the 

GMS cards and how they can help you achieve best over performances using

the Voltrolysis Tuning methods. 

5.  Feed-back control loop 

Fuel on Demand 

We have incorporated the 9XB System 

Circuit description for power supply and control of HIGH VOLTAGE, multi-cell Voltrolysis Cells. 

Using 16 inch or 18 inch design.  This circuit was developed/designed for powering high voltage, multi cell Voltrolysis Cells

 

Through a bridge rectifier, the power from the genset  looped after initial start up on inverted

Lithium Phosphate batteries is chopped and gated by a Advanced switch, which has electron extraction. 

An ‘old fashioned’ 10A moving coil meter is used to monitor the current because of its almost perfect integration! (which is due to mechanical inertia of its coil movement) Adjust the desired current limit as follows:

Turn the voltage limiter control P1 to MINIMUM - fully anti-clockwise. Apply power to the system. Connect the desired load. While watching the Meter, start turning P1 clockwise, SLOWLY. Observe the rising voltage and gas production.

At the point where the current no longer increases, you have reached the natural current draw for that particular load. Now back down the setting to the point where the current stopped rising.

 

If you connect a very HEAVY load (which would naturally draw a LOT more current than what you want), as you turn the control, the meter reading will increase all the way to the limit of the meter (10A) AND what the system is designed for. (also 10A) Naturally, you can stop the current at ANY level, up to the maximum.

System fuses are rated at 15A (50% overload) just in case there is a mishap!

Note that this power supply requires a MINIMUM of 30-40W load to operate.

===============

Running series cell electrolyzers on 50/60 Hz AC power

 

Many years ago, when I was determining the plate sizes for the   cell voltrolysis

I made the assumption that the RMS voltage value of the rectified (but un-filtered) supply would be approx. the same as the mains power input.

 

In other words, I assumed that the rectified 240V AC (which is RMS), when LOADED,

would be about the same value (minus rectifier losses) as the input.

Thereof the assumption that for a 240V AC input, divided by number of cells, would result in approx. 2V (RMS) across each and every cell.

 

Also, keeping current density to no more than 40 mA (0.04A) per cm².

 

However, when this cell was constructed,

CURRENT draw turned out to be WAY in excess of what I assumed 

This could only be due to MUCH higher cell voltage than I anticipated 

 

This required a fresh look at the power supply, since my previous experience has shown an EXPONENTIAL increase of current for increasing cell voltage 

 

I found that measuring voltages with multimeters

(including True RMS meters) are virtually meaningless 

 

Looking at the wave forms with oscilloscopes revealed the problem 

 

I used the following set-up for the tests:

 

A 240V/50VA transformer with secondary winding of 15V - 3.2A rating,

connected to a 25A bridge rectifier.  

 

The output of the bridge rectifier was loaded with a 3ohm/60W power resistor.

AC input to the bridge:  15V

‘DC + AC’ output from bridge:  13.2V (RMS)

(Current: 5A.)

 

However, the oscilloscope revealed a full wave rectified pulse waveform with a peak-to peak amplitude of 19.2V 

(See attached oscilloscope screen image:    

Using the ratio 15:13.2 and 15:19.2 the values for 240V were calculated to be 211.2 and 307.2, respectively.

Dividing 211.2 by 120 (the number of cells in the Les plate electrolyzer) is 1.76V. 

With only 1.76V per cell we would have, “BUGGER ALL” of gas

 

Obviously that is NOT what is happening.

It is clear that the cells DO NOT respond to just RMS voltage but something else

 

Dividing 307.2 by 120 is 2.56

When the cells get 2.56V across them, the CURRENT sky rockets 

I actually drew a chart (on a graph paper in those days, about 15 years ago!), showing the relationship between voltage across a single cell versus current.

 

I have now scanned it and found it good enough to show what is happening.

 

Special Notes

We recommend learning from the below statements but incorporate it into your understand of Stanley Meyer Tube Cells which run 1.6 volts no electrolyte. 

His is just a note to consider ir is not totally accurate nut can be consider when driving cells with mains power.

  • 12 v in 1.6v x 10 tubes 16 Volts

  • 110v x 69 tubes 110 Volts

  • 240v x 150 tubes 240 Volts

Note (refer to the graph) that when the voltage is 2V, the current is about 0.15A.

As the voltage increases to 2.15V, the current is 0.5A.

When the voltage reach 2.5V, the current is around 3.43A 

Increasing the voltage to 2.6V (only 0.1V increase ) results in a current draw of 4.7A 

And so on….

 

To sum it up:

A 25% increase in cell voltage (from 2 to 2.5V) increases the current from 0.15A to 3.43A 

Expressing this in a more practical way: 

From 2V, a 0.5V increase in cell voltage gives 22.86 times more current 

 

This explains why the 120 cell unit INSTANTLY blew all 15A mains fuses!

Further, it is also clear that the cells react to the PEAK applied voltage, NOT the RMS.

 

It needs to be pointed out that in order to make QUALITY gas

(HHO, HydrOxy, Brown’s Gas, etc.), PULSING is necessary.

George Wiseman has also pointed this out in his “Brown’s Gas Book Two”

which he published many years ago.

 

Quote (from page 18):

“Power supply considerations

 

If we apply straight DC current to the electrolyzer,

we find the oxygen and hydrogen devolving to their DI-atomic state.  We get NO Brown’s Gas.

 

The electricity MUST be pulsed to an electrolyzer to produce Brown’s Gas; 120 cps

is sufficient to produce Brown’s Gas, even 100 cps will work; so regular wall cycles will work.”

 

So, the bottom line is that if we want to have only 2V per cell,

 

(for optimum efficiency within practical limits) the electrolyzer running straight

on 240VAC needs 153 cells 

That is 33 cells MORE than the present 120 cell design 

 (In his book, George Wiseman suggests 138 cells for a 240V electrolyzer.)

 

Naturally, reducing plate sizes (surface area) would lower the current but this would drastically reduce efficiency due to the high current density.

(The plates would also erode quicker.)

 

Instead, we can limit the voltage input to the 120 cell unit by using phase control

(already designed) which has negligible losses.

This will ensure that each cell will get only about 2V.

It also limits/regulates the current AND temperature as well.

 

We can also use CAPACITORS which are near PERFECT AC current limiters!

(See “super simple 2kW electrolyzer power supply”.)

Reminder in Stans System we use no salts and the cells them selves become the capacitance

See 9AXB and 8XA

6. EGR Exhaust Gas Recycle 

Gas Mixing manifold

6.EGR Exhaust Gas Recycle Decription

SM 4 gasses/items going in to the engine, (from interview of him in the driveway)

1. hydroxy gas (manufactured under high voltage no amperage in the form of parsley ionizing of the gases/water in the process) ( non processed Natural water)

2. Ionized ambient air ( using the gas possessor)

3. recycled exhaust gasses ( cooled using a small tube style heat exchanger) (ran in to the intake) (controlled with a proportional valve)

4. ambient air (using a butterfly valve going on to the intake)

Ambient air and recycled exhaust gasses going in to the intake with butterfly valve as throttle control.

the ionized gases and hydroxy gas is going in to the injector block you see in the new videos of him and his brother. (? in actual intake of ionized gases... )

the exhaust gasses (non combustible gas) slow down the recombining of the hydrogen and oxygen by being "in the way" during the combustion process.

The carb in my case will be used as a butterfly valve only.

Waste Spark HHO Getting rid
Waste Spark HHO Getting rid

7.Auto Start Circuit 

7.Auto-Start Circuit description.

This design is for electric start generators which are supplied with remote controls.

(Note: It could also be used with electric start generators WITHOUT remote control BUT would need additional, rather complex circuitry.)

The idea is simple: When the preset gas pressure is reached, the generator (engine) starts automatically.

Since all the electronic engine management control facilities in this design are already in place, this optional circuit which performs the auto- start function is very simple indeed!

Operating conditions are as follows:

After powering up the entire system, gas (GTNT) pressure rises.

 

When it reaches the pre-set limit, the pressure regulator circuit generates a control pulse.

 

The VERY FIRST pulse will SET the LATCH. Its output goes HIGH and remains HIGH.

(Until power is turned OFF. At power-up, everything is RE-SET.)

Now, the LATCH ignores ALL further control pulses. As its output is DC coupled to the ‘Clock’ input of the ONE-SHOT, a SINGLE pulse with a set time constant is generated.

For the duration of the pulse, a MOSFET (which drives a relay) is turned ON.

The relay contacts are wired across the remote control’s ON-button.

(Pulse duration depends on the time required by the remote control to start the engine.)

The circuit is based on a 4013 dual D-type F/F (Flip-Flop). The first section is a LATCH and the second is used as a ONE-SHOT pulse generator which drives a MOSFET & relay.

It works as follows:

At power-on, LATCH IC1A is RESET by C2 (0.1u) & R3 (1M) and the ONE-SHOT (IC1B) is

RESET by C3 (220n) & R5 (8M2).

When power is applied to the Voltrolysis unit, gas pressure starts to build up.

 

As it reaches the pre-set pressure level for the first time, a positive control pulse is generated by the pressure regulator circuit. (The design provides both positive and negative going control pulses.)

The very first control pulse (applied to pin 6) SETs the LATCH IC1A.

(Once the LATCH is SET, all subsequent control pulses are ignored.)

The output (pin 1) of the LATCH (IC1A) is DC coupled to the ‘Clock’ input (pin 11) of ONE-SHOT IC1B.

 

Before the first clock pulse arrives at its clock input, its Q output (pin 13) is LOW. As resistor R5 (8M2) is connected between its Q output and RESET, its RESET input (pin10) is also LOW.

 

Since its D (Data) input (pin 9) is connected to the + supply rail, its output goes HIGH during the positive going transition of the pulse to its clock input (pin 11).

The output of ONE-SHOT (IC1B) is now HIGH while its RESET input (pin 10) is still LOW, current starts to flow from the HIGH output, through R5 (8M2), to the RESET input.

When the voltage reaches the RESET threshold, the ONE-SHOT RESETS

(its output snaps LOW) and its pulse is terminated.

The entire cycle just described is a strictly ONCE ONLY event

Only when the generator is stopped and re-started can the above cycle be repeated.

The circuit can be turned OFF or ON in order to select MANUAL or AUTO- START.

GTNT-gen. 'closed loop' set-up 

 

First, let’s look at the Voltrolysis unit.

High voltage series cell.

 By the way: the ANTON cell is also a series cell.  not ideal as plates.

To the best of my knowledge, the principle of the series cell was first discovered by Dr. William Rhodes around 1965 and patented Mar. 21, 1967 (US Patent 3,310,483) I discovered this patent around 1994.

Of all the conventional, “brute force” electrolyzers, series cells are the most efficient! But perhaps unbeknown to most, the efficiency of these units actually INCREASES as the cell numbers increase! (within practical limits, of coarse)

Further, it is a LOT easier to deal with HIGH voltage and LOW current.

 

To illustrate this point:

Suppose you want a 2.4kW (2400W) electrolyzer. With a supply voltage of 12V, you need 200A 

If you only want 1kW (1000) with a 2V supply, you still need 10 to 20 A 

Those who have worked with currents of this magnitude know what this means 

(For the benefit of those who never tried: THICK cables, unwanted voltage drops, HEAVY duty terminals/contacts, HEAVY duty switches and relays, etc., all of it fairly expensive)

Compare the above example with a Tube Voltrolysis unit running on rectified

(but un-filtered!) 240V AC. The current for a 2.4kW unit is 10A! For a 1kW unit, 4.16A

(All generators sold here in Australia have a rated output voltage of 240V.

Actually, that standard was ‘officially’ changed to 230V back in year 2000.

Anyway, close enough. Some parts of Australia still have up to 250V mains supply )

This means that we can run 120 cell, 240V Voltrolysis unit DIRECTLY from

the output of these generators with only low losses in the bridge rectifier diodes 

Please pay close attention to the following points also:

Just like most other types of cells, series cell Voltrolysis unit also create gas pressure.

 

Their physical dimensions are such that there is enough space for a certain volume of the pressurized gas above the plates.

 

That ‘space’ does not need to be large since it is strictly a “GTNT-on- demand” system 

(For safety reasons it should NOT be larger than absolutely necessary!)

Perhaps some practical figures will illustrate this better:

Suppose you have 2 dm³ (2 litre) volume space for the gas.

Enter Boyle’s Law:

Equation

The mathematical equation for Boyle's law is:

pV=k

where: p denotes the pressure of the system. V denotes the volume of the gas. k is a constant value representative of the pressure and volume of the system.

So long as temperature remains constant the same amount of energy given to the system persists throughout its operation and therefore, theoretically, the value of k will remain constant. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boyle%27s_law)

 

The injection solenoid I have

(I intend using this brand in production) is a Gas injector type JET 21, made by POLYAUTO in Italy.

 

It is the largest of their range and has an output orifice diameter of just under 6 mm! Its typical working pressure is rated at 70 kPa rel. , maximum is 120 kPa rel.

 

As an example: suppose we are going to settle for a pressure of 100 kPa (14.5 Psi). Using the Boyle’s Law equation, how many litres of gas do we have in that 2 dm³ (2 litre) space when the pressure is 100 kPa (g)?

Since the Freescale MPX5500DP pressure sensor I am using measures relative (gauge) pressure, a 100 kPa (g) reading means there is now 4 litres of gas in that 2 dm³ space.

When we make a closer analysis, we find that at the time we start the Voltrolysis unit for the first time, there is already 2 litres of AIR in that “empty” space above the plates!

 

So, when the production of HHO starts, by the time we reach the set pressure of 100 kPa [14.5 Psi (g)], we have added only 2 litres of HHO to that volume of 2 litres of AIR which was already there at atmospheric pressure!

In other words, the first few litres of HHO produced is diluted with air. After that is used up, it will be ‘pure’ HHO. (with water vapor and residue of the catalyst, KOH) The water based flash-back arrestor(s) (bubblers) will remove all that.

Now to the start-up power supply issue:

As long as we have mains power still connected, we use THAT.

With just a bridge rectifier AND the power control modules (all built into the ECU),

the 120 cell electrolyzer is connected to the mains voltage of 240V!

Switching from mains power to the generator’s output is done by a change- over power relay AUTOMATICALLY.

(The relay board is also built into the ECU.) After power-up, the relay is NOT energized. Its N.C. (Normally Closed) contacts connect the mains power to the ECU.

(See circuit diagram of power supply.)

There are NO interfacing problems since the output voltage AND frequency from the mains supply and from the generator are the same.

The change-over relay is controlled by frequency switch IC1 (LM2917-N8).

When the input frequency reaches 50 Hz, its output goes LOW and it LATCHES.

 

(A certain amount of Hysteresis is used to make sure it remains LATCHED within the narrow frequency band where the feedback operates.)

The LATCHED LOW output of IC1 is inverted by a transistor to HIGH.

This HIGH is applied to the relay driver transistor.

 

Thus, the relay is now ENERGIZED and its N.O. contacts are closed.

Power to the ECU (AND the electrolyzer) is now supplied by the generator

This condition is maintained as long as the engine is running. If the engine stops or its RPM drops too low, frequency switch IC1 will UN- LATCH (its output snaps HIGH) and the relay DE-ENERGIZES, once again connecting the ECU to the start-up supply.

When mains supply is no longer available (disconnected), a 12VDC–to–240VAC Inverter

and a BATTERY will be used as a start-up supply.

Keep in mind that even if the generator’s capacity is several kWs, neither the Inverter,

nor the battery needs to be very large.

The reasons are as follows: From the moment the engine starts till it reaches its correct RPM will take no more than 10 - 15 seconds, maximum.This means that initially the electrolyzer needs to produce only enough HHO to run the engine for about 15 seconds.

 

This low volume of HHO (whatever figure it will turn out to be in practice), can be generated over a lot longer time period than 15 seconds! Suppose you need to run a certain size Inverter for 2 minutes to generate enough HHO to start & run the engine for 15 seconds before the generator takes over and supplies its own power!!

 

In practical terms it means that the BATTERY needs to be large enough to comfortably supply the required current to the Inverter for 2 minutes AND still have enough power left to crank the engine! (electric start generator)

(Note that the battery will be connected AT ALL TIMES to the AUTOMATIC charger in the ECU.)

Important: For the fuel injection to work properly, gas pressure MUST be kept steady!

 

This implies that the engine should NOT be started before the required (set) pressure has been reached. With the rotary switch set to PR (see picture of prototype) we can watch the pressure building up on the ECU control panel’s LCD display.

 

There is also an indicator LED which comes ON when the set pressure is reached.

(Generators with electric start COULD also be made to start AUTOMATICALLY when the set pressure has been reached!)

To sum it up:

The generator/ECU/ Voltrolysis unit ‘loop’ set-up I described above is very neat.

There are two (2) standard, 240V 10A power cords connected to the ECU. One from the mains supply (or start-up Inverter), the other is from the generator’s output.

 

Switching between them is done with a c/o power relay inside the ECU.

Since the ECU is ALWAYS fully operational (first with the start-up supply and then with the power from the generator), there is NO change in parameters like ignition/injection timing, pressure, etc.

 

Naturally, there are several other connections to and from the ECU as well:

1. Power to the Voltrolysis unit– (2 wires)   [HIGH voltage to a Tube  cell unit  

2. Hall switch – (3 wires)

 

3. Ignition coil – (2 wires)

 

4. Injection solenoid – (2 wires)

 

5. Battery (automatic charging) – (2 wires)

 

6. Pump supply/speed control PWM   (2 wires)

 

7. Water level sensor/pump driver (to refill Voltrolysis unit) – (6 wires)

 

8 Gas hose (from the Voltrolysis unit to the pressure sensor on the regulator module)

Complex?

Maybe. It depends on your point of view. Contrary to the opinions of some, engine management is

NOT simple with ANY fuel, even for those who may have COMPLETE understanding of it.

If we expect smooth, trouble free operation from an ICE, we cannot take short cuts or make compromises.

 

Perhaps it is NOT common knowledge that using HHO ONLY is actually MUCH less complicated than using hydrocarbon fuels since we need to deal with ONLY two parameters: ignition and injection timing! Period.

 

 “Ignition system for small engines”:

“It needs to be pointed out that the ignition system for Hydroxy ONLY (not just a booster) will be very different from ignition systems for hydrocarbon fuels. It will be significantly simpler. There will be NO “speed mapping”, NO “load mapping”,

 

  • NO retard/advance change with engine RPM,

  • NO rich/lean mixture setting,

  • NO cold start setting,

  • NO “knock sensor”,

  • NO fuel/air temperature sensor,

  • NO Oxygen sensor, etc., etc.,

 

(“modern” engines are full of all that rubbish!)

There will be NO need for high energy sparks, multiple sparks, etc.

 

Further, there will be NO such thing as UNBURNED fuel remaining in the cylinders!!”

Power supply for the Engine Control Unit 

Power supply for the Engine Control Unit

To supply the various circuits within the control unit, several voltages are needed. They are all derived from the mains transformer’s secondary winding (15- 18V), rectified and filtered. (The battery charger is fed directly from this unregulated voltage.)

Three terminal voltage regulators are used to supply +12V-1, +12V-2 and +5V, a negative rail generator (using the MC34063 DC–DC controller) supplies -12V, then a -5V regulator. [See circuit diagram(s) for details. A negative supply rail is required for the Ignition/Injection control circuit, pressure regulator and current limiter circuits.]

Its output voltage is fixed (at approx. -12V), using standard resistor values (R12A & B, both 4.3k and R13, 1k). Schottky diode D2 (BAT46) can be substituted with a standard 1N4148.

On the pcb, several sockets are provided for connecting to other circuits.

Oh, don’t forget to heath sink the regulators! If you look at the circuit board you will notice (photo of the assembled circuit will be supplied) that the board is mounted on 6mm spacers and the two regulators are screwed to the heath sink (or box), using mica washer insulators. 

 

8.Pressure Regulator circuit  

 

It is logical that fuel supply pressure (liquid or gas) to any engine (injected or otherwise) should not be allowed to fluctuate too much. If it does, all kind of problems will arise.

 

Therefore, pressure needs to be REGULATED. These days, just about everything is controlled by electronics.

 

So, it should not come as a surprise that GTNT  gas pressure will also be regulated by electronic means.

Modern electronic pressure sensors deliver a voltage (or current) output, amplified or un-amplified, depending on model and manufacturer.

 

Un-amplified sensors need sophisticated (read: expensive) ICs to amplify their low output, usually around 40 to 100mV full scale. In most cases, even the amplified types need further signal processing to obtain the required span and offset.

 

For example: the MPX5500DP (made by Freescale) is an amplified sensor which has a pressure range of 0 – 500 kPA (0 – 72.5 PSI). Zero pressure output is 0.2V and at 500kpa it is 4.7V. Output span is thus 4.5V.

Suppose the pressure is to be displayed in PSI.

 

The 4.5V span needs to be converted to read 0 – 72.5 PSI. In other words, the voltmeter needs to display 00.0 at zero pressure and 72.5 instead of 0.2 and 4.7 (V) So, the 0.2V minimum level needs to be ‘level shifted’ (down) to 00.0V and the 4.5V span amplified to 7.25V. (amplification factor of 1.61) The meter will then display correctly in PSI. (72.5)

The same will apply if the display is to be in kPA. Once again, level shift is necessary but the amplification factor is reduced to 1.11 (5V:4.5V=1.11) The meter will thus read 00.0 at zero pressure and 500 at 500 kPA.

Pressure is regulated as follows: By applying a voltage which represents the required pressure to a comparator as a reference, the comparator’s output will go low (or high, depending on circuit configuration) when the voltage output of the pressure sensor equals/exceeds the reference voltage.

 

This signal is then used to switch the power off/on to the electrolyzer. Hysteresis (pressures where power is turned on and off) can be made (if desired) adjustable within practical limits. The pressure setting reference voltage is also adjustable and it is displayed on an LCD meter in either PSI or kPA.

Circuit description:

Note that the MPX5500DP pressure sensor needs a +5V supply. Its output is de-coupled by C6 (1n) and fed through resistor R1 (10k), to the inverting (-) input (pin 6) of IC1B (LM324), a unity gain inverting amplifier.

 

R1 and R3, both 10k, set the gain to -1 (unity) and R2 (5.1k) sets the input current of the non-inverting (+) input (pin 5) approx. equal to that of the inverting (-, pin 6) input.

IC1A is also inverting so the output is now positive again. This stage has adjustable gain (P1, 20k, 25 turn trim pot.) Gain is set by P1, R4 (51k) and R7 (100k). R6 (39k) sets the non-inverting (+, pin 3) bias current to approx. the same as that of the inverting input (-, pin 2).

‘Level shift’ is adjusted by P2 (10k, 25 turn trim pot.). Thus, IC1A is a ‘virtual earth’ mixer, adding the amplified signal and the ‘level shift’ voltage together, with NO interaction between the controls P1 and P2. To operate as a ‘virtual earth’ mixer, this amplifier stage needs to be inverting. For proper operation, a negative supply rail is also required.

The voltage (now representing correct pressure) is taken from the output of IC1A (pin 1) and fed to the inverting (-) input (pin 13) of IC1D which is used as a comparator. Some hysteresis is introduced by applying a small amount of positive feedback from the output (pin 14) to the non-inverting input (pin 12) through R11 (10M). The values of R10 (3.3k) and R11 (10M) are carefully calculated to give the desired amount of hysteresis.

An adjustable reference voltage, (P3, 10k and R9, 2k2) corresponding to the desired pressure, is fed to the non-inverting (+) input (pin 10, IC1C). IC1C is used as a unity gain voltage follower which has a very low output impedance.

Since IC1 (LM324) operates with a ± supply voltage, the comparator’s output

(IC1D, pin 14) swings between the positive and negative supply rails, instead of the usual positive rail and ground (0V).

 

As the swing below ground could possibly interfere with the power stage to be controlled, it is eliminated by using a transistor (Q1, BC547) output stage with the added bonus of very low impedance, high current drive capability and swinging only between the positive supply rail and ground.

When the output of the comparator swings negative (close to the negative supply line), diode D1 (4148) is reverse biased, cutting off drive to Q1.

 

The collector voltage of Q1 then rises to the + supply rail. This output is used for power systems requiring positive voltage to cut power. To cater for systems requiring negative control voltage, another transistor stage is added. (Q2, BC547) SW1a & b (DPDT) selects the required output polarity.

 

LED1 turns ON when the comparator’s output goes low, indicating that pressure has exceeded the pre-set value and power has to be cut off. The value of LED1’s current limiting resistor (R12, 6.8k) is fairly high since the voltage between the positive and negative rail is twice as high as the single supply rail.

Testing & adjustments

With NO (0) pressure applied to the sensor, check its output voltage at TP5. (Expected to be around 0.2V) Connect digital voltmeter to TP6. Adjust P2 (level shift) to a reading of 0.00V Outcome: 0.00V reading for 0 pressure.

Now, if an accurate pressure source is available, adjust the gain for the correct ‘slope’. (Example: if the reading is required in PSI, apply, say, 30PSI pressure.) Then, with the meter still connected to TP6 (which is amplifier IC1A’s output), adjust P1 to read 30.0 on the meter. Outcome: 30.0 reading for 30PSI pressure.

However, adjusting the gain without any pressure being applied should be just as good, judging by the figures quoted by the data sheet for the MPX5500DP.

 

‘Zero pressure offset’ is quoted as: Min. 0.088Vdc and Max. 0.313V – Typical 0.2V ‘Full scale output’ “ : Min. 4.587 Max. 4.813 “ 4.7V ‘Full scale span’ is quoted as: 4.5V Note that this figure remains the same, regardless of the zero pressure offset figure. This means that there is a very simple way to adjust the gain for the correct slope.

First, with the sensor connected but NO pressure applied, adjust P2 (level shift) to a reading of 0.00, as described above.

 

Then, accurately measure the zero pressure output of the sensor at TP5. Add 4.5V to this voltage (say, 0.2V + 4.5V=4.7V) Now apply this voltage, 4.7V (from a variable power supply) to TP5 but with the sensor output DISCONNECTED. To obtain the desired slope, the gain can now be adjusted. (by P1)

 

Example 1: for reading in kPA, adjust P1 to read 500 (full scale) Example 2: for reading in PSI, “ 72.5 “ Pressure calibration is now complete. (Accuracy of the MPX5500DP is quoted ± 2.5%, maximum.)

Setting the required pressure:

With a digital voltmeter connected to TP7, adjust P3 (‘set pressure’ pot.) to the required reading. Naturally, the reading will be in the ‘slope’ (kPA, PSI or whatever) you have chosen and adjusted as described above.

 

9. Battery Charger

 

 

 

 

 

10.Water Refilling

 

Re-fill is the biggest challenge of the series cell voltrolysis unit NOT LOL 

The Cell Pressure can act as a Pump to keep  it full but also we can use electronic means 

  

The idea is to use TWO containers. 

 

This is placed inside another, larger container, which is sealed with a lid & gasket.                       (The gas output and filling ports are on this lid.)

This larger container is also filled with Water to a HIGHER level than desired in the voltrolysis unit itself. During normal operation, the whole assembly is under the SAME pressure.   

Filling is done in two (2) stages.

Stage ONE is filling the voltrolysis unit  itself from the main tank.

Stage TWO is filling the main tank from the “fuel tank” (water).

First stage of filling:

A narrow, relatively thin (3mm) strip of plastic (Acrylic) is clamped to the bottom plate of the voltrolysis unit (for the purpose of drilling them together) and small holes (say, 1.5mm diam.) are drilled under each and every cell, in the middle of the 3mm gaps. (If faster fill is needed, more than one row of holes can be drilled.) Since the two pieces are drilled together, perfect line up of all holes are assured. 

This strip is mounted on a spring loaded slide arrangement under the cell and off-set enough (about 1.5 mm) to cover ALL holes.

When the voltrolysis unit needs filling, the strip is moved the same distance as the diameter of the holes (1.5mm) to line them up! If a piece of resin coated mild steel (or magnet) is attached to this strip, it can be operated by an electro-magnet (solenoid) from the outside of the container! This solenoid is then turned on/off as required with electronic control. 

The working principle of the set-up is based on a simple law of physics.

It states that in a sealed pressure vessel, pressure is exactly the same at every point, in all directions.

Water will thus be forced through all the holes with EQUAL pressure and since all holes have the same diameter, the volume of electrolyte flowing through them is also the same. (IF these “filling holes” remained OPEN long enough, the filling process would continue until EQUILIBRIUM is reached – when the water level in every cell is EXACTLY the same as in the main container.)

 

But filling can be terminated at any point, without significant water  level differences between the cells, due to equal hole sizes and pressures, as explained above.

Now to the filling levels in the Voltrolysis unit and the main container:

It is important to understand that the current flow through this type of Voltrolysis is limited by the surface area of the tube the longer the tube the more the production of gtnt gas.

Thus, water levels ABOVE the top edge of the end plates does NOT increase the current!

This is another great feature which I utilize!

Here is how:

I fill the water  to, say, 20mm ABOVE the top edge of the end Tubes.

The voltrolysis works at FULL capacity! IT REMAINS AT FULL CAPACITY all the way down to the level of the top edge of the end plates.

 

(If, however, the electrolyte level is allowed to drop BELOW that level, gas production starts to decrease.) So, in the above example, an voltrolysis unit with 120 cells, (100mm wide with a 3mm gap between all the plates) filled 20mm ABOVE the top edge of the end plates, we have a water volume of 3x20x100mm (6cm³) x 120 = 720cm³ (0.72 litre) to split into HHO.

In practical terms it means that re-filling is NOT required before 0.72 liters of water have been used.

Since most multi-cell voltrolysis unit are HIGH voltage, non-contact type level sensors are required. (the galvanic probes type level sensor cannot be used here.)

 

I use 4 pulsed IR beams to detect MINIMUM and MAXIMUM levels.

(2 in the voltrolysis and 2 in the main tank)

The circuits for the voltrolysis unit and main tank level sensors and drivers are IDENTICAL.

 

The only difference is that the circuit for the  unit voltrolysis filling (first stage) drives a SOLENOID,

while the main tank filling (second stage) circuit drives a WATER PUMP

‘First stage’

filling STARTS when the MINIMUM beam detects that the level has dropped to the top edge of the end plates. It activates the solenoid to move the strip (described above) to the OPEN position.

 

While filling, the level is monitored by the MAXIMUM beam and when it reaches the desired level (say 20 mm above the minimum setting), it turns the solenoid OFF.

 

This makes the strip to return to its normal position where ALL holes are CLOSED. This completes the “first s